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1732–George Washington, the first President of the United States, is born in Westmoreland, Virginia, British America. He was the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He presided over the convention that drafted the U.S. Constitution, which replaced the Articles of Confederation and remains the supreme law of the land. Washington established many forms in government still used today, such as the Cabinet system and the inaugural address. His retirement after two terms and the peaceful transition from his presidency to that of John Adams, established a tradition that continued up until Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected to a third term. Washington has been widely hailed as the "father of his country."



BC 1300–Egyptian Pharaoh, Ramesses II, is born. Known as Ramesses the Great, he was the third pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty of Egypt. He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire.

BC 1279–The coronation of Egyptian Pharaoh, Ramesses II, takes place.

606–Pope Sabinian dies in Rome, Byzantine Empire.

705–Empress Wu Zetian abdicates the throne, restoring the Tang Dynasty.

965–Otto, Duke of Burgundy, dies in France.

1111–Roger Borsa, King of Sicily, dies at age 50.

1302–Emperor Yingzong of Yuan is born Shidebala Gegeen Khan in China.

1371–David II, of Scotland, dies unexpectedly at the height of his power at Edinburgh Castle, at age 46. Robert II becomes King of Scotland, beginning the Stuart dynasty.

1403–Charles VII of France, is born in Paris, France.

1495–King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the city's throne.

1512–Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, dies in Seville, Crown of Castile, (present-day Spain), at age 57. As a cartographer, he was the first to realize that America was a new previously unknown continent. German mapmaker, Martin Waldseemüller, is credited with first using the word “America” on a map, in honor of Vespucci.

1514–Iranin ruler, Tahmasp I, is born Abu’l Muzaffar Abu’l Fath Sultan Shah Tahmasb bin Shah Ismail al-Safavi al-Husayni al-Musavi in Isfahan, Iran. He was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid Dynasty. He was the son and successor of Ismail I.

1630–Quadequina, an American Indian, introduces popcorn to English colonists.

1632–Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published.

1651–A storm surge floods the Frisian coast in Germany, drowning 15,000 people.

1680–Occultist, La Voisin (Catherine Monvoisin), dies by being burned at the stake on the Place de Grève in Paris, France, at age 40. She was a French fortune teller, poisoner, and an alleged sorceress, one of the chief persons in the “affaire des poisons,” during the reign of Louis XIV. Her cult (Affair of the Poisons) was suspected to have killed anywhere between 1,000 to 2,500 people in Black Masses. She started her career by practising chiromancy and face-reading to support her family. She also practiced medicine, especially midwifery, and performed abortions. She later sold aphrodisiacs to those who wished for someone to fall in love with them, and poison to those who wished for someone to die.

1732–George Washington, the first President of the United States, is born in Westmoreland, Virginia, British America. He was the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He presided over the convention that drafted the U.S. Constitution, which replaced the Articles of Confederation and remains the supreme law of the land. Washington established many forms in government still used today, such as the Cabinet system and the inaugural address. His retirement after two terms and the peaceful transition from his presidency to that of John Adams, established a tradition that continued up until Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected to a third term. Washington has been widely hailed as the "father of his country."

1744–In the War of the Austrian Succession, the Battle of Toulon causes several Royal Navy captains to be court-martialed, and the Articles of War to be amended.

1774–The English House of Lords rules that authors do not have perpetual copyright on their works.

1778–Painter and art curator, Rembrandt Peale, is born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. A prolific portrait painter, he was especially acclaimed for his likenesses of presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. Peale's style was influenced by French Neoclassicism, after a stay in Paris, France, in his early thirties.

1788–Philosopher, Arthur Schopenhauer, is born in Danzig, Germany. He claimed that our world is driven by a continually dissatisfied will that is continually seeking satisfaction. Influenced by Eastern philosophy, he maintained that the "truth was recognized by the sages of India"; consequently, his solutions to suffering were similar to those of Vedantic and Buddhist thinkers. At age 25, he published his doctoral dissertation, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, which examined the four distinct aspects of experience in the phenomenal world. He has influenced many thinkers, including Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Joseph Campbell, Leo Tolstoy, and Thomas Mann.

1797–Nobleman, Baron Münchhausen, dies in Bodenwerder, Germany, at age 76. He was a famous recanter of tall tales. His reputation has been exaggerated by writers, giving birth to a fully fictionalized literary character usually called simply “Baron Munchausen.”

1810–Composer, Fréderic Chopin, is born Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin in the Duchy of Warsaw, Poland. He was a virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era, who wrote primarily for the solo piano. A child prodigy, he completed his musical education and composed many of his works in Warsaw before leaving Poland, at the age of 20. His major piano works include sonatas, mazurkas, waltzes, nocturnes, polonaises, études, impromptus, scherzos, and preludes; some published only after his death. Chopin formed a friendship with Franz Liszt and was admired by many of his musical contemporaries, including Robert Schumann. In 1835, he obtained French citizenship. He lived most of his life in France, including nine years as the live-in lover of writer, Aurore Dupin (aka George Sand).

1819–The United States acquires Florida from Spain under an accord signed by Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams, and Spanish minister, Don Luis de Onis.

1821–During the Greek War of Independence, Alexander Ypsilantis crosses the Prut river at Sculeni into the Danubian Principalities.

1847–During the Mexican-American War in the Battle of Buena Vista, 5,000 American troops defeat 15,000 Mexicans.

1848–The French Revolution begins, which will lead to the establishment of the French Second Republic.

1853–Washington University is founded as Eliot Seminary in St. Louis, Missouri.

1855–Pennsylvania State University is founded in State College, Pennsylvania (as the Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania).

1856–The Republican Party holds its first national meeting in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

1857–Physicist, Heinrich (Rudolf) Hertz, is born in Hamburg, German Confederation. He was the first to conclusively prove the existence of electromagnetic waves that had been theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light. Hertz proved the theory by engineering instruments to transmit and receive radio pulses using experimental procedures that ruled out all other known wireless phenomena. The scientific unit of frequency (cycles per second) was named the "hertz" in his honor.

1862–Jefferson Davis is officially inaugurated in Richmond, Virginia, for a six-year term as the President of the Confederate States of America.

1865–The state of Tennessee makes slavery illegal.

1872–The Prohibition Party holds its first national convention in Columbus, Ohio, nominating James Black as its presidential nominee.

1879–Frank Winfield Woolworth opens his first “Five and Dime” store in Utica, New York.

1886–The Times of London becomes the first British newspaper to institute a personals column on its classified page.

1886–Artist, Hugo Ball, a founder of the Dada movement, is born in Pirmasens, Germany. A staunch pacifist, he will leave Germany during World War I and move to neutral Switzerland in 1916.

1888–John Reid, of Scotland, demonstrates golf to Americans in Yonkers, New York.

1889–President Grover Cleveland signs a bill admitting North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Washington as states in the United States of America.

1889–Olave Baden-Powell, English scout leader, is born Olave St Clair Soames in Chesterfield, England. She founded the Girl Guides. As well as making a major contribution to the development of the Guide-Girl Scout movements, she visited 111 countries during her life, attending Jamborees and national Guide and Scout associations.

1892–Poet and playwright, Edna St. Vincent Millay, is born in Rockland, Maine. She was as famous for her bohemian lifestyle in Greenwhich Village as for her work. She wrote steadily until her death in 1950, at her home in upstate New York, called Steepletop, now a National Historic Landmark. Since 1973, it has housed the Millay Colony for the Arts, a retreat for writers and composers.

1898–Korean King, Heungseon Daewongun, dies in Korea, at age 77. He was known for his vigorous enforcement of the seclusion policy, persecution of Christians, and the killing or driving off of foreigners who landed on Korean soil.

1899–Filipino forces, led by General Antonio Luna, launch counter-attacks for the first time against the American forces during the Philippine-American War. The Filipinos fail to regain Manila from the Americans.

1900–Hawaii becomes a U.S. territory.

1900–Super-centenarian, James (Emmanuel) Sisnett, is born in Saint George, Barbados. He will die in Christ Church, Barbados, at age 113 (and 90 days). He was the verified oldest man in the Western Hemisphere, the second-oldest man in the world, the 12th oldest person overall, and one of the last men born in the 19th century.

1903–Austrian composer, Hugo Wolf, dies of syphilis in Vienna, Austria, at age 42. His greatest works, setting to music German, Spanish, and Italian poems, were composed in just three years, from 1888 to 1891.

1904–The United Kingdom sells a meteorological station on the South Orkney Islands to Argentina.

1907–Actor-producer, Sheldon Leonard, is born Sheldon Leonard Bershad in New York, New York. He produced the TV programs The Andy Griffith Show, The Danny Thomas Show, The Dick Van Dyke Show, and I Spy. As an actor, Leonard specialized in playing supporting characters, especially gangsters or “heavies” in films such as It's a Wonderful Life, To Have and Have Not, and Guys and Dolls.

1907–Actor, Robert (George) Young, is born in Chicago, Illinois. He is best known for his starring role of Jim Anderson in the TV series Father Knows Best, and physician Marcus Welby in Marcus Welby, M.D. He appeared in the films Maisie, Northwest Passage, Sweet Rosie O’Grady, The Canterbury Ghost, The Enchanted Cottage, and Goodbye, My Fancy.

1908–Actor, Sir John Mills, is born Lewis Ernest Watts Mills in North Elmham, Norfolk, England. He was cast in more than 120 films in a career spanning seven decades. He appeared in the films Goodbye, Mr. Chips, This Happy Breed, Great Expectations, Hobson’s Choice, The End of the Affair, Around the World in Eighty Days, Tiger Bay, Swiss Family Robinson, The Chalk Garden, The Family Way, The Wrong Box, Adam’s Woman, Ryan’s Daughter, and Gandhi. He was the father of actresses, Juliet Mills and Hayley Mills.

1909–The sixteen battleships of the Great White Fleet, led by USS Connecticut, return to the United States after a voyage around the world.

1915–In World War I, the Imperial German Navy institutes unrestricted submarine warfare.

1918–TV announcer, Don Pardo, is born Dominick George Pardo in Westfield, Massachusetts. He was a radio and television announcer whose career spanned over seven decades. His longest, and best-known, announcing job was for Saturday Night Live, which he held for 39 seasons, from the show's debut in 1975 until his death in 2014.

1921–After Russian forces (under Baron Roman von Ungern-Sternberg) drive the Chinese out, the Bogd Khan is reinstalled as the Emperor of Mongolia.

1923–The U.S. begins the first transcontinental air mail route.

1924–Calvin Coolidge becomes the first President to deliver a radio broadcast from the White House in Washington, D.C.

1925–Gothic humorist and cartoonist, Edward Gorey, is born Edward St. John Gorey in Chicago, Illinois. He is known for his macabre pen and ink drawings and stories and is considered America’s greatest Goth eccentric.

1925–Physician, Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt, dies in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England. He invented the six-inch medical thermometer. Before that, they were 12 inches long.

1926–Television producer, Bud Yorkin, is born Alan David Yorkin in Washington, Pennsylvania. He produced many hit sitcoms of the 1970s, including All in the Family, Maude, Good Times, and Sanford and Son. He was married to actress, Cynthia Sikes.

1927–Singer, Guy Mitchell, is born Albert George Cernik in Detroit, Michigan. He was a pop singer, successful in America, Britain, and Australia. He sold 44 million records, including six million-selling singles.

1928–Actor, Paul Dooley, is born Paul Brown in Parkersburg, West Virginia. He appeared in the films The Out-of-Towners, Death Wish, A Wedding, A Perfect Couple, Breaking Away, Popeye, Endangered Species, Kiss Me Goodbye, Little Shop of Horrors, A Dangerous Woman, and Hairspray.

1930–Vocalist, Marni Nixon, is born Margaret Nixon McEathron in Altadena, California. Nixon's career on film started in 1948, when she sang the voices of the angels heard by Ingrid Bergman in Joan of Arc. The next year, she did her first dubbing work when she provided Margaret O'Brien's singing voice in The Secret Garden. She went on to do the singing for Audrey Hepburn in My Fair Lady, Natalie Wood in West Side Story, and Deborah Kerr in The King and I. She is the mother of singer-songwriter, Andrew Gold.

1932–Edward M. “Teddy” Kennedy, is born into the Kennedy Dynasty in Boston, Massachusetts. He was a U.S. Senator for Massachusetts (1962-2000).

1935–A “no-fly zone” is created when airplanes are no longer permitted to fly over the White House in Washington, D.C.

1941–The Nazis begin rounding up Jews in Amsterdam.

1942–President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders General Douglas MacArthur out of the Philippines, as the Japanese victory becomes inevitable.

1942–Christine (Margaret) Keeler, model and showgirl, is born in Uxbridge, Middlesex, England. She is known for her part in the “Profumo Affair,” which was a British political scandal that originated with a brief sexual relationship in 1961 between John Profumo, the Secretary of State for War in Harold Macmillan's government, and Keeler, then 19 years old. In March 1963, Profumo denied any impropriety in a personal statement to the House of Commons, but was forced to admit the truth a few weeks later.

1943–Members of the White Rose resistance, Sophie Scholl, Hans Scholl, and Christoph Probst, are executed in Nazi Germany.

1944–In World War II, American aircraft mistakenly bomb the Dutch towns of Nijmegen, Arnhem, Enschede, and Deventer, resulting in 800 deaths in Nijmegen alone.

1944–The Soviet Red Army recaptures Krivoi Rog.

1944–Film director, (Robert) Jonathan Demme, is born in Baldwin, Nassau County, New York. His films include Crazy Mama, Melvin and Howard, Swing Shift, Something Wild, Swimming to Cambodia, The Silence of the Lambs, Philadelphia, and Ricki and the Flash.

1944–Lawyer and businessman, Robert (George) Kardashian, is born in Los Angeles, California. He gained national recognition as O.J. Simpson's friend and defense attorney during Simpson's 1995 murder trial. He was married to Kris Houghton and their childen are Kourtney Kardashian, Kim Kardashian, Khloé Kardashian, and Rob Kardashian. All four achieved fame after his death, mainly through the E! cable network reality TV show, Keeping Up with the Kardashians, and its spin-offs. Kris Kardashian later married Olympian athlete, Bruce Jenner.

1944–Kasturba Gandhi, the wife of Mohandas Gandhi, dies from chronic bronchitis at Aga Khan Palace, Poona, Bombay Province, British India (present-day Pune, Maharashtra, India). In association with her husband, she was a political activist, fighting for civil rights and Indian independence from the British.

1945–Singer, Oliver, is born William Oliver Swofford in North Wilkesboro, North Carolina. He was best known for his international hit, Good Morning Starshine, from the musical Hair.

1948–A Communist coup takes place in Czechoslovakia.

1950–Actress, Julie Walters, is born Julia Mary Walters in Edgbaston, Birmingham, England. She first came to international prominence in 1983, for the title role in Educating Rita. She appeared in the films Personal Services, Prick Up Your Ears, Buster, Stepping Out, Intimate Relations, Girl’s Night, Billy Elliot, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Calendar Girls, and Mama Mia!

1951–Actress, Ellen Greene, is born in Brooklyn, New York. She is best known for the co-starring role in the movie musical Little Shop of Horrors. She also appeared in the films Next Stop, Greenwich Village, I’m Dancing as Fast as I Can, Talk Radio, Stepping Out, and One Fine Day.

1954–The 11th Annual Golden Globe Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: The Robe; Best Actor: Spencer Tracy for The Actress; Best Actress: Audrey Hepburn for Roman Holiday; Best Director: Fred Zinnemann for From Here to Eternity; Best International Film: Little Boy Lost.

1956–Heartbreak Hotel becomes Elvis Presley's first “Top 10” single.

1957–Elvis Presley’s parents, Gladys and Vernon Presley, are filmed in the audience as their son performs Got a Lot o' Livin' to Do for the movie, Loving You. After his mother’s death, Elvis will never watch that scene again.

1958–Egypt and Syria join to form the United Arab Republic.

1958–The 15th Annual Golden Globe Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: The Bridge on the River Kwai; Best Actor: Alec Guinness for The Bridge on the River Kwai; Best Actress: Joanne Woodward for The Three Faces of Eve; Best Director: David Lean for The Bridge on the River Kwai; Best Musical: Les Girls; Best Foreign Film: The Confessions of Felix Krull (West Germany).

1958–Dave Spitz, of Black Sabbath, is born in Forest Hills, Queens, New York. His brother is musician, Dan Spitz (former lead guitarist of the metal band Anthrax).

1959–Racecar driver, Lee Petty, wins the first Daytona 500.

1959–Actor, Kyle (Merritt) MacLachlan, is born in Yakima, Washington. He is best known for his roles in cult films such as Dune and Blue Velvet. He also had the role of Special Agent Dale Cooper in TV’s Twin Peaks and its subsequent film continuation Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me. He appeared in the films The Hidden, The Doors, Rich in Love, Roswell, Me Without You, and Peace, Love & Misunderstanding.

1962–Naturalist, Steve Irwin, is born Stephen Robert Irwin in Essendon, Victoria, Australia. Nicknamed "The Crocodile Hunter," he was a wildlife expert, television personality, and conservationist.

1963–The Beatles form their Northern Music Publishing Company. Dick James and Brian Epstein are named as the co-directors, with John Lennon owning 19 of the 98 shares, and Paul McCartney one more than him. Many years later it will all be sold to the one-gloved wonder, Michael Jackson.

1964–The Beatles return to England after their triumphant visit to America, where they played to a TV audience of more than 70 million on The Ed Sullivan Show. Their arrival at London’s Heathrow Airport is deemed such an occasion by the BBC that it interrupts an early morning sports program to report on the plane's landing.

1964–Video game designer, Ed Boon, is born Edward J. Boon in Chicago, Illinois. He co-created Mortal Kombat with John Tonias.

1965–The Beatles fly to the Bahamas to begin filming location scenes for their second movie Help! The movie's original title was "Eight Arms to Hold You." They stay at the luxurious Balmoral Club, near Cable Beach.

1967–U.S. and South Vietnamese forces launch Operation Junction City, the biggest combined operation of the Vietnam War, attacking communist forces in Tayninh Province north of Saigon.

1968–Actress, Jeri Ryan, is born Jeri Lynn Zimmermann in Munich, West Germany. She was a regular on the science fiction series Dark Skies, starred as Dr. Kate Murphy in the drama series Body of Proof, and guest-starred as Tara Cole on Leverage in 2009.

1972–The Official Irish Republican Army detonates a car bomb at Aldershot barracks, killing seven people and injuring 19 others.

1973–The U.S. and China agree to establish liaison offices in Beijing and Washington, D.C.

1973–Jean-Jacques Bertrand, Premier of Quebec (1968-1970), dies in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, at age 56.

1974–Samuel Byck attempts the assassination of President Richard Nixon.

1974–The Organisation of the Islamic Conference summit begins in Lahore, Pakistan. Thirty-seven countries attend and 22 heads of state and government participate.

1975–Actress, Drew (Blythe) Barrymore, is born in Culver City, California. She is best known for the role as the little sister in E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial. She also appeared in the films Altered States, Firestarter, Irreconcilable Differences, See You in the Morning, Poison Ivy, Guncrazy, Bad Girls, Boys on the Side, Mad Love, The Wedding Singer, Home Fries, Charlie’s Angels, Donnie Darko, Riding in Cars with Boys, Duplex, 50 First Dates, and Music and Lyrics. She is a descendant of the Barrymore family of well-known American stage and cinema actors, and is the granddaughter of film legend, John Barrymore. Her father was John Drew Barrymore.

1976–Florence Ballard, of The Supremes, dies of cardiac arrest in Detroit, Michigan, at age 32.

1979–Saint Lucia gains independence from the United Kingdom.

1980–The U.S. Ice Hockey Team defeats the Soviet Union at the 1980 Winter Olympic Games, in an upset dubbed the “Miracle on Ice.” The movie Miracle, starring Kurt Russell, tells the story of how the upset came about.

1983–Sir Adrian Boult dies in London, England, at age 93. He was a conductor for the BBC Symphony Orchestra.

1986–The People Power Revolution begins in the Philippines.

1987–Pop artist, Andy Warhol, dies in his sleep from a sudden post-operative cardiac arrhythmia in New York, New York, at age 58. Warhol had delayed treatment for his recurring gallbladder problems, as he was afraid of doctors and hospitals. Warhol was buried at St. John the Baptist Byzantine Catholic Cemetery in Bethel Park, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. With the exception of a few modest gifts to family members, Warhol's estate endowed the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts.

1987–Television host, David Susskind, dies of a heart attack in New York, New York, at age 66. During his 30-year run as a talk show host, Susskind covered many controversial topics of the day, including race relations, transsexualism, and the Vietnam War. It is one of very few talk shows from that era that was preserved and can be viewed today.

1989–The 31st Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Bobby McFerrin for Don't Worry, Be Happy; Album of the Year: George Michael for Faith; Song of the Year: Bobby McFerrin (songwriter) for Don't Worry, Be Happy; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Bobby McFerrin for Don't Worry, Be Happy; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Tracy Chapman for Fast Car; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: The Manhattan Transfer for Brasil; Best Country & Western Performance: Randy Travis for Old 8x10; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Anita Baker for Giving You the Best That I Got; Best Rock Performance: Robert Palmer for Simply Irresistible; Best Instrumental Performance: Carlos Santana for Blues for Salvador; Best Rap Performance: DJ Jazzy Jeff & the Fresh Prince for Parents Just Don't Understand; Best New Artist: Tracy Chapman. The ceremonies are held at the Shrine Auditorium, Los Angeles, California. The host is Billy Crystal.

1992–Grunge rocker, Kurt Cobain, of Nirvana, marries Courtney Love.

1994–Aldrich Ames and his wife are charged by the U.S. Department of Justice with spying for the Soviet Union.

1994–Rock fiddle player, Papa John Creach, dies of heart failure in Los Angeles, California, at age 76. He played with the Haight-Asbury rock groups, Jefferson Airplane and Hot Tuna.

1995–The Corona reconnaissance satellite program, in existence from 1959 to 1972, is declassified.

1995–John Lennon’s first wife, Cynthia Lennon, releases her first (and only) single recording, a cover version of the 1968 Mary Hopkin hit, Those Were The Days.

1998–The XVIII Winter Olympic Games close at Nagano, Japan.

2000–A pair of John Lennon's jeans are sold at auction for $3,150.

2001–The Sunday Mirror lists The Beatles as the biggest money-earners of 2000, pulling in $50 million.

2001–John Fahey, guitarist and indie label owner, dies of heart trouble in Salem, Oregon, at age 61. Fahey formulated an idiosyncratic, blues-based fingerpicking style, which was showcased on a series of albums for his label, Takoma Records. He was considered a principal influence on such new-age musicians as Will Ackerman and George Winston.

2002–Angolan political and rebel leader, Jonas Savimbi, is killed in a military ambush.

2002–Cartoonist, Chuck Jones, dies of heart failure in Corona Del Mar, California, at age 89. He was an animator, cartoon artist, screenwriter, producer, and director of animated films, most memorably of Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies shorts for Warner Bros. He worked on many classic animated cartoon shorts starring Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, the Road Runner and Wile E. Coyote, Pepé Le Pew, and Porky Pig.

2002–Journalist, Daniel Pearl, dies of murder by decapitation in Karachi, Pakistan, at age 38. Pearl was kidnapped while working as the South Asia Bureau Chief of The Wall Street Journal, based in Mumbai, India. He had gone to Pakistan as part of an investigation into the alleged links between Richard Reid (the "shoe bomber") and Al-Qaeda. He was later executed by his captors.

2005–A 6.4 earthquake shakes the Kerman Province of Iran, killing 612 people and injuring 1,411 others.

2006–Six men stage Britain's biggest robbery, stealing £53 million (about $92.5 million or ¤78 million) from a Securites depot in Tonbridge, Kent, England.

2009–The 81st Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Slumdog Millionaire; Best Actor: Sean Penn for Milk; Best Actress: Kate Winslet for The Reader; Best Director: Danny Boyle for Slumdog Millionaire; Best Foreign Film: Departures (Japan). The ceremonies are held at the Kodak Theatre, Hollywood, California. The host is Hugh Jackman.

2009–Film director, Howard Zieff, dies of Parkinson's disease in Los Angeles, California, at age 81. His films include Slither, Hearts of the West, House Calls, The Main Event, Private Benjamin, Unfaithfully Yours, The Dream Team, and My Girl.

2011–In the Bahraini uprising, tens of thousands of people march in protest against the deaths of seven victims killed by police and army forces during previous protests.

2011–A 6.1 earthquake strikes Christchurch, New Zealand, killing 185 people.

2012–A train crash in Buenos Aires, Argentina, kills 51 people and injures 700 others.

2013–The United Kingdom's credit rating is downgraded from AAA to AA1 by Moody's Investors Service.

2014–President Viktor Yanukovych of Ukraine is impeached by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine by a vote of 328-0.

2015–A ferry carrying 100 passengers capsizes in the Padma River in Bangladesh, killing 70 people.

2015–The 87th Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Birdman; Best Actor: Eddie Redmayne for The Theory of Everything; Best Actress: Julianne Moore for Still Alice; Best Director: Alejandro G. Iñárritu for Birdman; Best Foreign Film: Ida (Poland). The ceremonies are held at the Dolby Theatre, Hollywood, California. The host is Neil Patrick Harris.

2016–Russia has announced that it will ask permission to fly unarmed surveillance planes over the United States, citing the Open Skies Treaty.

2016–Iran holds talks with Russia over buying an upgraded version of the S-300 surface-to-air missile defense system.

2016–Online retail giant, Amazon, raises the minimum order size for free shipping for its regular customers to $49, at 40% increase. In October 2013, Amazon boosted the threshold to $35, after having held the line at $25 for at least a decade.

2016–Zimbabwe President, Robert Mugabe, assigns all diamond mining operations to the newly formed, government-run Zimbabwe Consolidated Diamond Company, and orders eight foreign diamond mining companies from the country.

2016–Country singer, Sonny James, dies in Nashville, Tennessee, at age 86. His biggest hit was Young Love in 1957. James had 72 country and pop charted releases from 1953 to 1983.

2017–Seven Earth-like planets are discovered in the Goldilocks zone of the star TRAPPIST-1.

2017–The Trump administration revokes Obama-era rules on transgender rights, namely the “bathroom bill.”


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Charles VII of France; popcorn; Arthur Schopenhauer; Fréderic Chopin; the first Woolworth store; Edna St. Vincent Millay; Sir John Mills; Edward Gorey, Marni Nixon; Christine Keeler; the last scene in Loving You; Lee Petty; The Beatles deplane at Heathrow Airport in London upon returning from America; Drew Barrymore; Andy Warhol; picture sleeve for Cynthia Lennon's single Those Were the Days; Chuck Jones; Slumdog Millionaire poster; and Sonny James.

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