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1918–The last “Carolina parakeet” dies in captivity at the Cincinnati Zoo in Cincinnati, Ohio. Carolina parakeets were probably poisonous: American naturalist and painter, John J. Audubon, noted that cats apparently died from eating them, and they are known to have eaten the toxic seeds of cockleburs. The species was declared extinct in 1939.



1173–Pope Alexander III canonizes Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. Becket had been martyred three years earlier on orders of English King Henry II, a former friend, until Becket was elevated to Archbishop in 1162. The saint is the “holy blissful martyr” that Chaucer’s pilgrims are going to pay homage to in The Canterbury Tales.

1245–Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland, is granted resignation after confessing to torture and forgery.

1431–The English, occupying France, begin their witchcraft trial against Joan of Arc.

1437–James I of Scotland, dies by assassination in Blackfriars, Perth, Scotland, at age 42.

1440–The Prussian Confederation is formed.

1513–Pope Julius II dies of fever in Rome, Papal States, Italy, at age 69. Nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope," his papacy was marked by an active foreign policy, ambitious building projects, and patronage for the arts. He commissioned the destruction and rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica and Michelangelo's decoration of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

1554–Botanist, Hieronymus Bock, dies in Hornbach, Germany, at age 56. He was a physician and Lutheran minister who began the transition from medieval botany to the modern scientific world view, by arranging plants according to their relation or resemblance. The first edition of his Kreutterbuch ("plant book") appeared in 1539, not illustrated. His objective was to describe German plants, including their names, characteristics, and medical uses.

1613–Mikhail I is unanimously elected Tsar by a national assembly, beginning the Romanov dynasty of Imperial Russia.

1621–Rebecca Nurse, English-American victim of the Salem Witch Trials, is born in Great Yarmouth, England. Although there was no credible evidence against her, she was hung as a witch on July 19, 1692. This occurred during a time when the Massachusetts colony was seized with hysteria over witchcraft and the supposed presence of Satan within the colony. Her sisters, Mary Eastey and Sarah Cloyce, were also accused of witchcraft, with Mary being found guilty and executed.

1677–Philosopher, Baruch Spinoza, dies from a lung illness in The Hague, Dutch Republic, at age 44. Spinoza spent his last 21 years writing and studying as a private scholar. He believed in a "philosophy of tolerance and benevolence" and actually lived the life he preached. Spinoza set forth that God exists and is abstract and impersonal. Spinoza's system imparted order and unity to the tradition of radical thought. He contended that everything that exists in nature (everything in the Universe) is one reality, and there is only one set of rules governing the whole of the reality that surrounds us and of which we are part.

1728–Peter III of Russia, is born Karl Peter Ulrich in Kiel, in the duchy of Holstein-Gottorp. He was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762.

1730–Pope Benedict XIII dies of catarrhal inflammation in Rome, Lazio, Papal States, Italy, at age 81.

1741–Agriculturalist, Jethro Tull, dies in Hungerford, Berkshire, England, at age 65. He was an inventor whose ideas were instrumental in the development of modern English agriculture. One of his inventions was a horse drawn seed planting drill that sowed three even rows of seeds at once.

1794–Antonio López de Santa Anna, eighth President of Mexico, is born Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón in Xalapa, Veracruz, Viceroyalty of New Spain (present-day Mexico).

1804–The first self-propelling steam locomotive makes its outing at the Pen-y-Darren Ironworks in Wales.

1808–Without a previous declaration of war, Russian troops cross the border to Sweden at Abborfors in eastern Finland, beginning the Finnish War, in which Sweden will lose the eastern half of the country to Russia.

1821–Publisher, Charles Scribner, is born in New York, New York. With Isaac Baker he founded the publishing firm of Baker and Scribner, which became Charles Scribner's Sons in 1878. The firm published such prominent American authors as F. Scott Fitzgerald, Edith Wharton, Ernest Hemingway, and Thomas Wolfe.

1828–The initial issue of the Cherokee Phoenix is the first periodical to use the Cherokee syllabary invented by Sequoyah.

1842–John Greenough receives the first U.S. patent for the sewing machine.

1846–Emperor Ninko, of Japan, dies at age 45.

1848–Former President John Quincy Adams suffers a stroke on the floor of the House of Representatives in Washington, D.C. He died two days later.

1848–Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish the Communist Manifesto.

1858–Edwin T. Holmes sells the first electric burglar alarm in the U.S.

1862–In the American Civil War, the Battle of Valverde is fought near Fort Craig in New Mexico Territory.

1874–The Oakland Daily Tribune publishes its first edition.

1875–Super-centenarian, Jeanne (Louise) Calment, is born in Arles, France. She has the longest confirmed human lifespan on record, living to the age of 122 (and 164 days). She lived in Arles, France, for her entire life, outliving both her daughter and grandson by several decades.

1878–The first U.S. telephone directory is distributed.

1878–Indian spiritual leader, Mirra Alfassa, known as “The Mother,” is born Blanche Rachel Mirra Alfassa in Paris, France. She worked with Hindu author and teacher, Sri Aurobindo. Alfassa says that at age five she felt she did not belong in this world, and her spiritual discipline (sadhana) began then. Between 11 and 13, she had a series of psychic and spiritual experiences revealing to her the existence of God, and man's possibility of uniting with Him. Around age 20, she had achieved a conscious, constant union with the Divine Presence, without the help of books or teachers. Soon after, she discovered Vivekananda's Raja Yoga. She met Sri Aurobindo in Pondicherry, India, in mid-April 1910. On November 24, 1926, the Sri Aurobindo Ashram was founded. The experiences of the last 30 years of Alfassa's life were captured in the 13-volume work The Agenda.

1879–F.W. Woolworth begins his empire with his first five-and-dime store in Utica, New York.

1885–The newly completed Washington Monument is dedicated in Washington, D.C.

1887–The first American bacteriology laboratory opens in Brooklyn, New York.

1887–Oregon becomes the first state to make Labor Day a holiday.

1893–Classical guitarist, Andrés Segovia, is born Andrés Segovia Torres in Linares, Jaén, Spain. Many professional classical guitarists today were students of Segovia, or students of his students.

1903–Writer and diarist, Anaïs Nin, is born Angela Anaïs Juana Antolina Rosa Edelmira Nin y Culmell in Neuilly, France. Nin is probably most famous for writings that were never intended for public viewing. During her lifetime, Nin wrote more than 35,000 pages of diaries, spanning the years from 1914 to 1974. Even though she had published essays, criticism, and fiction since the 1930s, she came to literary prominence in America in 1966, when the first volume of her diary was published. She had passionate love affairs with both Henry Miller (author of Tropic of Cancer) and his wife, June.

1903–Surrealist influenced writer, Raymond Queneau, is born in Le Havre, France. Queneau was the first French novelist to write language the way it was spoken on the street, regardless of syntax and grammar. His book, Exercises in Style, recounts a brief and ordinary encounter on a bus 99 different ways, including prose, free verse, a sonnet, and as a play. His best-known work is Zazie, which was filmed by Louis Malle in 1960.

1907–Poet, W.H. Auden, is born Wystan Hugh Auden in York, England. He moved to America in the late 1930s and became an American citizen. He wrote many poems and was the librettist for Benjamin Britton's opera, Paul Bunyan, as well as for Igor Stravinsky's, The Rake's Progress.

1914–Actor, Zachary Scott, is born in Austin, Texas. Alfred Lunt discovered Scott in Texas and convinced him to move to New York City, where he appeared on Broadway, making his debut in a revival of Ah, Wilderness! in 1941. He appeared in the films Hollywood Canteen, Mildred Pierce, Her Kind of Man, Flamingo Road, Colt .45, and The Young One.

1915–The World's Fair opens in San Francisco, California.

1915–Actress, Ann Sheridan, is born Clara Lou Sheridan in Denton, Texas. She appeared in the films The Lemon Drop Kid, Limehouse Blues, Angels with Dirty Faces, They Drive by Night, The Man Who Came to Dinner, I Was a Male War Bride, Stella, and The Opposite Sex.

1918–The last “Carolina parakeet” dies in captivity at the Cincinnati Zoo in Cincinnati, Ohio. Carolina parakeets were probably poisonous: American naturalist and painter, John J. Audubon, noted that cats apparently died from eating them, and they are known to have eaten the toxic seeds of cockleburs. The species was declared extinct in 1939.

1919–German socialist, Kurt Eisner, is assassinated in Munich, Free State of Bavaria, at age 51. He was on his way to present his resignation to the Bavarian parliament. His assassination resulted in the brief establishment of the Bavarian Soviet Republic, as the parliament and government officials fled Munich.

1921–Reza Shah takes control of Tehran during a successful coup d'état.

1925–The New Yorker magazine publishes its first issue.

1925–Film director, Sam Peckinpah, is born David Samuel Peckinpah in Fresno, California. He started out directing episodes of TV series (mostly Westerns) including Gunsmoke, Broken Arrow, Have Gun Will Travel, The Rifleman, The Zane Grey Theatre, and Route 66. He was known for including extremely violent scenes in his movies, before it was popular and widely excepted to do so. His films include Ride the High Country, The Wild Bunch, Straw Dogs, Junior Bonner, The Getaway, Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid, Bring Me the Head of Alfredo Garcia, and The Killer Elite.

1927–Humor writer, Erma Bombeck, is born Erma Louise Fiste in Bellbrook, Ohio. From 1965 to 1996, Bombeck wrote over 4,000 newspaper columns chronicling the ordinary life of a midwestern suburban housewife. Her books include The Grass is Always Greener Over the Septic Tank, If Life is a Bowl of Cherries What Am I Doing in the Pits?, and Motherhood: The Second Oldest Profession.

1927–Fashion designer, Hubert de Givenchy, is born Count Hubert James Marcel Taffin de Givenchy, in Beauvais, France. At age 10, Givenchy decided he wanted to work in fashion design, following a visit to the 1937 World's Fair in Paris, France. After completing his studies at the École des Beaux-Arts, he opened his own design house at the age of 25. Givenchy is well known for having designed both professional and personal wardrobes for Audrey Hepburn. His clients also included Lauren Bacall, Ingrid Bergman, Maria Callas, Marlene Dietrich, Greta Garbo, Grace Kelly, and Jacqueline Kennedy.

1931–Alka Seltzer is introduced.

1931–F. Scott Fitzgerald’s short story, “Babylon Revisited” is published in The Saturday Evening Post. Many consider this story to be his finest work.

1933–Jazz chanteuse, Nina Simone, is born Eunice Kathleen Waymon in Tryon, North Carolina. She worked in a broad range of styles including classical, jazz, blues, folk, R&B, gospel, and pop. Some of her most popular recordings were I Loves You, Porgy, I Put a Spell on You, Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood, and Feeling Good.

1934–Actress, Rue McClanahan, is born Eddi-Rue McClanahan in Healdton, Oklahoma. She is best known for her co-starring roles in the TV shows Maude and The Golden Girls. She appeared in the films The People Next Door, They Might Be Giants, Mother of the Bride, Annabelle’s Wish, Starship Troopers, and Back to You and Me.

1937–The League of Nations bans foreign national "volunteers" in the Spanish Civil War.

1937–Harald V of Norway is born at the Crown Prince Residence in Skaugum, Norway.

1937–Actor, Gary Lockwood, is born John Gary Yurosek in Van Nuys, California. He appeared in the films Wild in the Country, Splendor in the Grass, It Happened at the World’s Fair, and Model Shop. He was married to actress, Stephanie Powers.

1940–Actor, Peter (Robert) McEnery, is born in Walsall, England. He appeared in the films Victim, The Moon-Spinners, The Game is Over, I Killed Rasputin, Negatives, Better a Widow, and Entertaining Mr. Sloane.

1943–Producer and record executive, David (Lawrence) Geffen, is born in Brooklyn, New York. Geffen formed Geffen Records in 1980 and signed John Lennon to his new label for his highly anticipated comeback (and final) album, Double Fantasy. Geffen was a partner in the Dreamworks film production company with Jeffrey Katzenberg and Steven Spielberg.

1944–Actress, Kitty Winn, is born Katherine Tupper Winn in Washington, D.C. She was in dozens of theatre productions from 1961 to 1978, and among these were Night of the Iguana, Toys in the Attic, Long Day’s Journey into Night, Our Town, and The Tempest. She appeared in the films They Might be Giants, Panic in Needle Park, The Exorcist, Message to My Daughter, Peeper, and Mirrors.

1945–Japanese Kamikaze planes sink the escort carrier USS Bismarck Sea and damage the USS Saratoga.

1945–Paul Newton, of Uriah Heep, is born in Andover, Hampshire, England.

1946–Actress, (Ellen) Tyne Daly, is born in Madison, Wisconsin. She is best known for the co-starring role of Detective Mary Beth Lacey in the TV police drama Cagney & Lacey. She was married to actor, Georg Stanford Brown, and her brother is actor, Tim Daley.

1946–Actor, Anthony Daniels, is born in Salisbury, Wiltshire, England. He played C-3PO in all six of the Star Wars feature films from the original installment in the series, as both the body and voice of the golden robot. Daniels is an Adjunct Professor at Carnegie Mellon University's Entertainment Technology Center.

1946–Actor, Alan Rickman, is born Alan Sidney Patrick Rickman in Hammersmith, London, England. He appeared in the films Romeo and Juliet, Die Hard, Quigley Down Under, Truly Madly Deeply, Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves, Bob Roberts, Sense and Sensibility, The Winter Guest, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Love Actually, and Snow Cake.

1947–The first instant camera is demonstrated at the Optical Society of America in New York City by inventor Edwin Herbert Land. It is the first camera to take, develop, and print a picture on photo paper (in black and white) all in about a minute. He calls his invention the Polaroid Land Camera. It is an "instant" success.

1948–The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is incorporated.

1949–Jerry Harrison, of Talking Heads, is born Jeremiah Griffin Harrison in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

1951–Vince Welnick, of The Grateful Dead and The Tubes, is born in Phoenix, Arizona.

1952–The British government, under Winston Churchill, abolishes the Identity Card in order to “set the people free.”

1952–Actress, Elizabeth Taylor, marries her second husband, Michael Wilding.

1952–The 9th Annual Golden Globe Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: A Place in the Sun; Best Actor: Fredric March for Death of a Salesman; Best Actress: Jane Wyman for The Blue Veil; Best Director: Laslo Benedek for Death of a Salesman; Best Musical: An American in Paris; Best International Film: The Day the Earth Stood Still.

1953–F. Crick and J. Watson discover the structure of human DNA.

1953–Actress, Christine Ebersole, is born in Chicago, Illinois. She was a cast member of the late night TV comedy series, Saturday Night Live (1981-1982). She has appeared in the films Tootsie, The Dollmaker, Amadeus, Thief of Hearts, Ghost Dad, Dead Again, and Richie Rich.

1953–Actor, William (Louis) Petersen, is born in Evanston, Illinois. He co-starred in the TV series CSI: Crime Scene Investigation. He has appeared in the films Thief, Amazing Grace and Chuck, Cousins, Young Guns II, Hard Promises, Fear, and The Contender.

1955–Actor, Kelsey Grammer, is born in Charlotte Amalie, U.S. Virgin Islands. He starred in the role of Dr. Frasier Crane in two popular TV series, Cheers and Fraiser.

1958–The very first Gibson model Flying V guitar is shipped from a factory in Kalamazoo, Michigan.

1958–The “peace symbol” is designed and completed by Gerald Holtom. It was commissioned by the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, in protest against the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment.

1958–Singer, Mary-Chapin Carpenter, is born in Princeton, New Jersey.

1960–Fidel Castro nationalizes all businesses in Cuba.

1961–The Beatles perform for the first time at the Cavern Club in Liverpool, England, for a lunchtime show. Over the next two-and-a-half years, they will perform there almost 300 times, and the Cavern soon becomes synonymous with the freshly christened Merseybeat scene.

1961–Actor, Christopher Atkins (Bomann), is born in Rye, New York. He has appeared in the films The Blue Lagoon, Child Bride of Short Creek, The Pirate Movie, and A Night in Heaven.

1963–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1963–Actor, William (Joseph) Baldwin, is born in Massapequa, New York. He appeared in the films Born on the Fourth of July, Internal Affairs, Flatliners, Backdraft, Three of Hearts, Sliver, Fair Game, and Virus. He is the brother of actors, Alec, Daniel, and Stephen Baldwin. He is married to singer, Chynna Phillips.

1964–The Beatles leave America and return home to England. They arrive in London the morning of February 22nd, at 8:10 a.m. As the Fab Four depart, 24,000 rolls of Beatles wallpaper arrive the U.S.

1965–Black nationalist leader, Malcolm X, is murdered by Black Muslim assassins in New York, New York, at age 39. He was about to address a meeting of his Afro-American Unity Organization at the Audubon Ballroom. He had broken away from the Nation of Islam. Fifteen hundred people will attend Malcolm’s funeral in Harlem, New York, at the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ on February 27, 1965. The Autobiography of Malcolm X, published shortly after his death, is considered one of the most influential nonfiction books of the 20th century.

1967–The West Hollywood rock club, Gazzarri's, celebrates its opening night at a new location on the Sunset Strip.

1968–McGraw-Hill, Inc. outbids eight other American publishers and pays $150,000 for the U.S. rights to Hunter Davies' authorized biography The Beatles.

1971–The Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty is signed in Vienna, Austria. It was brought forth by the United Nations to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics.

1971–An outbreak of tornadoes hit northeastern Louisiana and northern and central Mississippi, claiming 121 lives. Sixteen hundred people are injured, 900 homes are destroyed or badly damaged, and the total damage adds up to $19 million.

1972–The Soviet unmanned spaceship, Luna 20, lands on the Moon.

1973–Over the Sinai Desert, Israeli fighter aircraft shoot down the Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 jet, killing 108 people.

1974–Silver hits a record high of $5.96 an ounce

1979–Actress, Jennifer Love Hewitt, is born in Waco, Texas. She is best known for roles on the TV dramas, Party of Five (1995–2000) and Ghost Whisperer (2005-2010).

1982–Disc jockey, "Murray the K" Kaufman, dies of cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 60. He called himself the “Fifth Beatle” because of his role in promoting their first trip to America.

1985–Nutritionist, Nathan Pritikin, dies of suicide related to leukemia. He believed that exercise and a low fat, high unrefined carbohydrate diet would help prevent and reverse heart disease. He founded the Pritikin Longevity Center in 1976.

1986–The first game in the Legend of Zelda franchise is released for the NES.

1986–Singer, Charlotte Church, is born Charlotte Maria Reed in Llandaff, Cardiff, Wales. She rose to fame in childhood as a classical singer before branching into pop music in 2005. By 2007, she had sold more than 10 million records worldwide. Her CDs include Voice of an Angel, Charlotte Church, Dream a Dream, Enchantment, Tissues and Issues, and Back to Scratch.

1987–Actress, Ellen Page, is born Ellen Philpotts-Page in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. She has appeared in the films Marion Bridge, Touch & Go, Love That Boy, Hard Candy, X-Men: The Last Stand, Juno, The Tracey Fragments, and Inception.

1988–Televangelist, Jimmy Swaggart, tearfully confesses to his congregation in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, that he was guilty of an unspecified sins, and that he was leaving the pulpit temporarily. Reports had linked Swaggart to a prostitute.

1988–A storm moving across southern Canada produces high winds in north central America. The high winds snap trees, down power lines, and rip shingles off roofs. The Kentucky Fried Chicken bucket is blown off a store in Havre, Montana. And an 18-foot fiberglass bear is blown off its stand along a store front in west Cody, Wyoming.

1989–President George H.W. Bush calls Ayatollah Khomeini's death warrant against Satanic Verses author, Salman Rushdie, "deeply offensive to the norms of civilized behavior."

1990–The 32nd Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Bette Midler for Wind Beneath My Wings; Album of the Year: Bonnie Raitt for Nick of Time; Song of the Year: Jeff Silbar and Larry Henley (songwriters) for Wind Beneath My Wings; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Michael Bolton for How Am I Supposed to Live Without You; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Bonnie Raitt for Nick of Time; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: Aaron Neville and Linda Ronstadt for Don't Know Much; Best Country & Western Performance: k.d. lang for Absolute Torch and Twang; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Bobby Brown for Every Little Step; Best Rock Performance: Don Henley for The End of the Innocence; Best Instrumental Performance: The Neville Brothers for Healing Chant; Best Rap Performance: Young MC for Bust a Move; Best New Artist: Milli Vanilli. The ceremonies are held at the Shrine Auditorium, Los Angeles, California. The host is Garry Shandling. The award for Best New Artist was originally awarded to Milli Vanilli. In November 1990, the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences revoked Milli Vanilli's Grammy, after performers Robert Pilatus and Fabrice Morvan and their producer, Frank Farian, admitted the duo "did not sing a note" on their album, Girl You Know It's True. Paul McCartney receives a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.

1991–Prima ballerina, Dame Margot Fonteyn, dies of cancer in Panama City, Panama, at age 71. She is widely regarded as one of the greatest classical ballet dancers of all time. She spent her entire career as a dancer with The Royal Ballet.

1993–Luxury car maker, Ferruccio Lamborghini, dies at age 76.

1995–Steve Fossett lands in Leader, Saskatchewan, Canada, becoming the first person to make a solo flight across the Pacific Ocean in a balloon.

1996–The Space Telescope Science Institute announces that photographs from the Hubble Space Telescope confirm the existence of a "black hole" equal to the mass of two billion suns in a galaxy some 30 million light-years away.

2000–Consumer advocate, Ralph Nader, announces his entry into the U.S. presidential race, bidding for the nomination of the Green Party.

2001–The 43rd Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: U2 for Beautiful Day; Album of the Year: Steely Dan for Two Against Nature; Song of the Year: U2 for Beautiful Day; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Sting for She Walks This Earth; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Macy Gray for I Try; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: Steely Dan for Cousin Dupree; Best Country & Western Performance: Johnny Cash for Solitary Man; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Toni Braxton for He Wasn't Man Enough; Best Rock Performance: Lenny Kravitz for Again; Best Instrumental Performance: The Brian Setzer Orchestra for Caravan; Best Rap Performance: Eminem for The Real Slim Shady; Best New Artist: Shelby Lynne. The ceremonies are held at Staples Center, Los Angeles, California. The host is Jon Stewart.

2002–Prince Michael Jackson II, the son of pop star, Michael Jackson, is born in San Diego, California. His mother's identity is unknown, but Michael Jackson had said the child was the result of artificial insemination from a surrogate mother and his own sperm. In his early childhood, Prince Michael and his half-siblings wore various masks and veils, which was their father's attempt to keep their identities hidden from media, paparazzi, and fans. He was given the name “Blanket” by his father, meaning to cover or "blanket" someone with love.

2013–Several bombings take place in Hyderabad, India, killing at least 17 people and injuring 119 others.

2013–Bluesman, Magic Slim, dies of bleeding ulcers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at age 75. Slim's recording career began in 1966, with the song Scufflin', followed by a number of singles into the mid-1970s.

2015–Musician, Clark Terry, dies in hopsice care in Pine Bluff, Arkansas, at age 94. He was a swing and bebop trumpeter and a pioneer of the flugelhorn in jazz. He played with Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Quincy Jones, and Oscar Peterson. He was also a member of the Tonight Show band from 1962 to 1972.

2016–Germany considers sending troops to Tunisia to help train the Tunisian Army in the fight against Islamist militants, particularly ISIL who control territory in neighboring Libya.

2016–In what is seen as a major boost for the "Vote Leave" campaign, Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, announces he will be campaigning for the United Kingdom to leave the European Union.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Thomas Becket; Hieronymus Bock; Baruch Spinoza; Charles Scribner; Mirra Alfassa (“The Mother”); Raymond Queneau; Zachary Scott; the “Carolina parakeet”; Sam Peckinpah; Hubert de Givenchy and Audrey Hepburn; Kitty Winn; the Polaroid Land Camera; a Gibson model Flying V guitar; Malcolm X; the authorized biography The Beatles; Jimmy Swaggart; Milli Vanilli; Ralph Nader; and Clark Terry.

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