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2014–Child star, Shirley Temple, dies of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Woodside, California, at age 85. Temple began her film career in 1932, at the age of three. In 1934, she found international fame in Bright Eyes, a feature film designed specifically for her acting, singing, and dancing talents. Temple announced her official retirement from films on December 16, 1950. As an adult, Temple had a second career in politics.



1162–Baldwin III of Jerusalem dies in Beirut, Lebanon, at age 33. It was rumored that he had been poisoned in Antioch by pills given to him by his Syrian Orthodox doctor.

1242–Emperor Shijo of Japan, dies from an accident in Tsukinawa no Misasagi (Kyoto), at age 11.

1258–Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed.

1278–Margaret II, Countess of Flanders, dies in Ghent in the Flemish Region of Belgium, at age 77.

1306–In front of the high altar of Greyfriars Church in Dumfries, Robert the Bruce murders John Comyn, sparking revolution in the Wars of Scottish Independence.

1355–The St. Scholastica's Day riot breaks out for two days in Oxford, England, leaving 63 scholars and 30 locals dead.

1535–Twelve nude Anabaptists run through the streets of Amsterdam, in the Netherlands.

1542–Queen Catherine Howard of England is confined in the Tower of London to be executed three days later for treason. She committed adultery.

1567–An explosion destroys the Kirk o' Field house in Edinburgh, Scotland. The second husband of Mary Queen of Scots, Lord Darnley, is found strangled, in what many believe to be an assassination.

1606–Christine Marie of France is born at Palais du Louvre in Paris, France. It was revealed on the TV show Who Do You Think You Are? that one of her descendants is model-actress, Brooke Shields.

1720–Edmund Halley is appointed the second Astronomer Royal of England.

1755–Lawyer and political philosopher, Montesquieu, dies from a high fever in Paris, France, at age 66. At the time of his death, he was completely blind. Montesquieu was a man of letters who lived during the Age of Enlightenment. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, which is implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. Montesquieu was the most frequently quoted authority on government and politics in colonial pre-revolutionary British America, cited more by the American founders than any source except the Bible.

1763–The French and Indian War ends with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. As part of the treaty, Canada is ceded to England by the French.

1774–Andrew Becker demonstrates a diving suit.

1829–Pope Leo XII dies in Rome, Papal States, at age 68.

1840–British Queen Victoria marries her cousin Albert von Saksen-Coburg.

1855–U.S. citizenship laws are amended so that all children of American parents born abroad are granted U.S. citizenship.

1859–Politician, Alexandre Millerand, is born in Paris, France. He was the 12th President of France.

1861–Jefferson Davis is notified by telegraph that he has been chosen as provisional President of the Confederate States of America.

1863–P.T. Barnum stages the wedding of sideshow midgets, Tom Thumb and Mercy Lavinia Warren, in New York.

1868–Prince Waldemar of Prussia is born Joachim Friedrich Ernst Waldemar at Crown Prince's Palace, Berlin, Prussia. He was the sixth child of Crown Prince Friedric and Victoria, Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of the Queen Victoria.

1870–The Y.W.C.A. (Young Women’s Christian Association) is founded in New York.

1890–Around 11 million acres, surrendered to the U.S. by the Sioux Indians, is opened for settlement.

1890–Novelist, Boris (Leonidovich) Pasternak, is born in Moscow, Russian Empire. His most famous novel is Doctor Zhivago, which was smuggled to Milan and published in 1957. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1958, but the Soviet regime forced him to decline it.

1893–Entertainer, Jimmy Durante, is born James Francis Durante in Manhattan, New York. He was one of America's most familiar and popular personalities of the 1920s through the 1970s. His nickname was the Schnozzola, for his large nose. He is known for several catch phrases, among them: “Inka dinka doo,” “Ha-cha-cha-chaaaa, “I got a million of ‘em,” and the sign-off “Good night, Mrs. Calabash, wherever you are.” His two LPs contained the songs As Time Goes By, September Song, I’ll Be Seeing You, Younger Than Spring, and Make Someone Happy. He appeared in the films You’re in the Army Now, The Man Who Came to Dinner, The Great Rupert, Billy Roses’ Jumbo, and It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad, World.

1897–The New York Times begins using the slogan "All the News That's Fit to Print."

1898–Playwright, Bertholt Brecht, is born in Augsburg, Bavaria, German Empire. After World War I, he fell in with the Dadaists and Marxists whose aim was to tear apart middle-class culture, and he began to see that theater could play an important role in stirring up society. He also developed a close collaboration with the composer, Kurt Weill, with whom he wrote The Threepenny Opera and the opera Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagony. With the rise of the Nazis, his Marxist leanings forced him to flee to Denmark, and then to America, where he settled in Hollywood. In 1947, he was called before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC): he testified, then immediately left the country for East Germany, where he lived for the rest of his life.

1901–Actress and educator, Stella Adler, is born in New York, New York. She founded the Stella Adler Studio of Acting in New York City and Los Angeles, California, with long-time protégé, Joanne Linville. Adler was the only American actress to study with Constantin Stanislavski. In 1988, she published The Technique of Acting with a foreword by Marlon Brando.

1904–John (Villiers) Farrow, director, producer, and screenwriter, is born in Sydney, Australia. His films include Reno, Five Came Back. Wake Island, Two Years Before the Mast, The Big Clock, His Kind of Woman, Hondo, and The Unholy Wife. He was married to actress, Maureen O'Sullivan. His daughters are Prudence Farrow and actress, Mia Farrow.

1906–HMS Dreadnought, the first of a revolutionary new breed of battleships, is christened and launched by King Edward VII.

1906–Actor, Lon Chaney, Jr., is born Creighton Tull Chaney in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The son of silent film actor, Lon Chaney, he is best known for the role of Larry Talbot in the 1941 film The Wolf Man. It was only after his father's death that Chaney started acting in films, beginning with an uncredited bit part in the film Girl Crazy in 1932. In 1935, he began using the name Lon Chaney, Jr. He also appeared in the films One Million B.C., Man Made Monster, The Ghost of Frankenstein, The Mummy’s Tomb, Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man, Son of Dracula, The Mummy’s Curse, High Noon, Not as a Stranger, Indestructible Man, The Cyclops, The Defiant Ones, and Spider Baby.

1918–Ottoman sultan, Abdul Hamid II, dies at Beylerbeyi Palace in Istanbul, Turkey, at age 75.

1920–Baseball outlaws all pitches involving tampering with the ball.

1920–Gerontologist and author, Alexander Comfort, is born in London, England. Although he's best known for his bestseller, The Joy of Sex, he started his career as a poet, novelist, and physician. He became an expert on aging, and published several books on the subject in the 1950s and 1960s.

1920–Actress, Neva (Louise) Patterson, is born in Nevada, Iowa. She appeared in the films The Solid Gold Cadillac, Desk Set, An Affair to Remember, David and Lisa, The Spiral Road, Dear Heart, All the President’s Men, The Buddy Holly Story, Star 80, and All of Me.

1923–Ink paste is manufactured for the first time by Standard Ink Company.

1923–Texas Tech University is founded as Texas Technological College in Lubbock, Texas.

1927–Opera singer, Leontyne (Mary Violet) Price, is born in Laurel, Mississippi. She was one of the first African Americans to become a leading artist at the Metropolitan Opera. Most of Leontyne Price's commercial recordings were issued by RCA Victor Red Seal. After her retirement from the opera stage in 1985, she continued to appear in recitals and orchestral concerts for over a decade.

1929–Composer, Jerry Goldsmith, is born Jerrald King Goldsmith in Los Angeles, California. He was known for his work in American television and film. Among many others, he scored music for the films Lonely Are the Brave, The List of Andrian Messenger, Lillies of the Field, A Patch of Blue, Seconds, The Sand Pebbles, Planet of the Apes, Patton, Papillon, Chinatown, Alien, Raggedy Man, Hoosiers, Sleeping with the Enemy, The River Wild, and L.A. Confidential.

1930–The Grain Stabilization Corporation is authorized by the U.S. Congress.

1930–Actor, Robert Wagner, is born Robert John Wagner, Jr. in Detroit, Michigan. He is best known for his starring roles in the TV shows It Takes a Thief and Hart to Hart. He appeared in the films With a Song in My Heart, A Kiss Before Dying, The True Story of Jesse James, All the Fine Young Cannibals, The Longest Day, Winning, The Towering Inferno, and Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery. He was twice married to actress, Natalie Wood, and later to actress, Jill St. John. In his memoirs, Wagner revealed he had affairs with Yvonne De Carlo, Joan Crawford, Elizabeth Taylor, Anita Ekberg, Joan Collins, Barbara Stanwyck, and Tina Sinatra.

1931–New Delhi becomes the capital of India.

1932–Musician, Rockin' Dopsie, is born Alton Rubin in Carencro, Louisiana. He was a leading Zydeco accordion player who enjoyed popular success first in Europe, and later in America. Of his playing, Dopsie said, “I'm the only man in the world that plays the accordion upside-down. It's all because daddy didn't taught me how to play. I just picked it up.”

1933–Aldolph Hitler proclaims the end of Marxism.

1933–In Round 13 of a boxing match at New York City's Madison Square Garden, Primo Carnera knocks out Ernie Schaaf, killing him.

1933–The world's first singing telegram is delivered by the Postal Telegraph Company of New York.

1935–The Pennsylvania Railroad begins passenger service with a new streamlined electric locomotive.

1939–Singer, Roberta (Cleopatra) Flack, is born in Black Mountain, North Carolina. Her biggest hit was The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face, which topped the Billboard “Hot 100” for six weeks in 1972. He other hits include Compared to What, Killing Me Softly with His Song, Feel Like Makin’ Love, and The Closer I Get to You.

1939–Pope Pius XI dies of a heart attack in Apostolic Palace, Vatican City, at age 81.

1940–The Soviet Union begins mass deportations of Polish citizens from occupied eastern Poland to Siberia.

1940–A chart topper: In The Mood by the Glenn Miller Orchestra.

1940–Singer, Kenny Rankin, is born in Los Angeles, California. He had a big hit with the song Peaceful.

1941–Film director, Michael Apted, is born in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, England. His films include Stardust, Coal Miner’s Daughter, Continental Divide, Gorky Park, Firstborn, Gorillas in the Mist, Thunderheart, Nell, and Extreme Measures.

1942–Glenn Miller receives the first ever gold disc for selling one million copies of Chattanooga Choo Choo.

1944–Entertainer, Peter Allen, is born Peter Richard Woolnough in Tenterfield, New South Wales, Australia. As a songwriter, many of his songs were recorded by other artists. He wrote or co-wrote I Honestly Love You, Don’t Cry Out Loud, I’d Rather Leave While I’m in Love, I Go to Rio, You and Me, We Wanted It All, and Arthur’s Theme (Best That You Can Do). He was married to singer, Liza Minnelli.

1944–Author, Frances Moore Lappé, is born in Pendleton, Oregon. She wrote the best selling book, Diet for a Small Planet. In 2008, Gourmet magazine named Lappé among 25 people (including Thomas Jefferson, Upton Sinclair, and Julia Child), whose work has changed the way America eats.

1949–Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman opens at the Morosco Theater in New York City.

1949–Nigel Olsson, of The Spencer Davis Group, is born in Wallasey, Cheshire, England.

1950–Olympic swimmer, Mark (Andrew) Spitz, is born in Modesto, California. He won seven gold medals at the 1972 Summer Olympics, and set new world records in all seven events in which he competed, a record that still stands.

1954–President Dwight Eisenhower warns against U.S. intervention in Vietnam.

1954–The big screen biopic, The Glenn Miller Story, has its American premiere in New York.

1956–Rock and roller, Little Richard, records Long Tall Sally.

1957–Author, Laura Ingalls Wilder, dies in her sleep from heart failure in Mansfield, Missouri, at age 90. She wrote the “Little House” series of children’s books. The series included Little House in the Big Woods, Little House on the Prairie, and Little House in the Ozarks: The Rediscovered Writings.

1958–ABC-TV’s The Mickey Mouse Club begins its “Annette” serial, quickening the rising popularity of its young star, Annette Funicello.

1961–Political pundit, George (Robert) Stephanopoulos, is born in Fall River, Massachusetts. He rose to early prominence as a communications director for the 1992 U.S. presidential campaign of Bill Clinton. He moved on to be chief political correspondent for ABC News, co-anchor of ABC News' Good Morning America, and host of ABC's Sunday Morning This Week.

1962–Francis Gary Powers, an American who was shot down over the Soviet Union while flying a CIA spy plane in 1960, is released by the Soviets in exchange for the U.S. release of a Russian spy. The exchange concluded one of the most dramatic episodes of the Cold War.

1962–Roy Lichtenstein's first solo exhibition opens, and it includes “Look Mickey,” which featured his first use of Ben-Day dots, speech balloons, and comic imagery sourcing, for which he became well known.

1962–Heavy metal rocker, Cliff (Lee) Burton, of Metallica, is born in Castro Valley, California. He performed on the band's first three studio albums, Kill 'Em All, Ride the Lightning, and Master of Puppets.

1964–In the wake of their appearance the night before on The Ed Sullivan Show, The Beatles have become overnight sensations. Elvis Presley sends them a telegram of congratulations and the Fab Four hold a press conference at New York's Plaza Hotel.

1964–The aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne collides with and sinks the destroyer HMAS Voyager off the south coast of New South Wales, Australia, killing 82 people.

1964–Radio and TV talk show host, Glenn (Lee) Beck, is born in Everett, Washington. He hosts The Glenn Beck Radio Program, a nationally syndicated talk-radio show that airs throughout the United States. Beck is the founder and CEO of Mercury Radio Arts, a multimedia production company through which he produces content for radio, television, publishing, the stage, and the Internet. In 2012, he started his own television network, The Blaze.

1965–British Invasion duo, Chad and Jeremy, guest star as the “Red Coats” on the TV series The Dick Van Dyke Show.

1966–Composer and songwriter, Billy Rose, dies in New York, New York, at age 66. He was a impresario, theatrical showman, and lyricist. His work on Broadway includes Sweet and Low, Ziegfeld Follies of 1934, Jumbo, and Carmen Jones.

1967–The 25th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified. It outlines Presidential Disability & Succession.

1967–Actress, Laura (Elizabeth) Dern, is born in Los Angeles, California. She has appeared in the films Alice Doesn’t Live Here Anymore, Foxes, Teachers, Mask, Blue Velvet, Wild at Heart, Rambling Rose, Jurassic Park, A Perfect World, October Sky, I Am Sam, and The Master. Her parents are actor, Bruce Dern and actress, Diane Ladd.

1968–The Beatles close Beatles U.S.A., their American fan club and business office, and fire their U.S. press agents, severing all American business connections. They also withdraw from the late Brian Epstein's NEMS Enterprises and turn all business affairs over to their newly formed record company, Apple.

1968–Peggy Fleming wins the Olympics figure skating gold medal, at Grenoble, France.

1969–Television newscaster, Laurie (Walker) Dhue, is born in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Dhue has worked in the news departments of MSNBC, Fox News Channel, CNN, and The Blaze.

1971–Four journalists, including photographer Larry Burrows of Life magazine, Kent Potter of United Press International, Nenri Huett of the Associated Press, and Keisaburo Shimamoto of Newsweek, die in a South Vietnamese helicopter operating in Laos. The journalists had been covering Operation Lam Son 719, a limited attack into Laos by South Vietnamese forces, when their helicopter crashed.

1971–According to a report in The New York Times, Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention are forced to cancel a concert in London, England, that was to include the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra and songs from the score of his film 200 Motels. Officials objected to Zappa's film, finding it obscene.

1972–The BBC bans play of Give Ireland Back to the Irish by Wings.

1973–The historic Liverpool club, The Cavern, is given a three-month reprieve by British Rail, who are constructing an underground railroad, necessitating the demolition of the club. Should the club have to move, says owner Roy Adams, he could at least preserve the original cellar room where The Beatles performed 292 times back in the early 1960s.

1974–Actress, Elizabeth Banks, is born Elizabeth Irene Mitchell in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. She has appeared in the films Surrender Dorothy, Spider-Man, Seabiscuit, The 40-Year-Old Virgin, W., The Hunger Games, and People Like Us.

1975–Legendary record producer, Phil Spector, is injured in a serious car accident, but details are for unknown reasons kept secret. The accident takes place somewhere between Los Angeles, California, and Phoenix, Arizona, and according to a statement released by Spector's office, he suffered multiple head and body injuries. It is rumored that he suffered burns and needed extensive plastic surgery. Even some of his closest friends know nothing about the incident.

1978–As much as eight inches of rain drenches southern California, resulting in widespread flooding and mudslides. A wall of water which ripped through the mountain resort community of Hidden Springs, drowning at least 13 people. The storm casued $50 million in damage.

1979–A chart topper: Do Ya Think I'm Sexy? by Rod Stewart.

1981–A fire at the Las Vegas Hilton claims eight lives and injures nearly 200.

1986–John Lennon's Live in New York City LP is released in the U.S.

1989–Ron Brown is elected Chairman of the Democratic National Committee, becoming the first African American to lead a major American political party.

1990–Buster Douglas knocks out Mike Tyson in 10 rounds, to become the Heavyweight Boxing Champion.

1990–Thunderstorms produce severe weather across the southeastern U.S. There are a total of 29 tornadoes within 29 hours, and 245 reports of large hail or damaging winds. At least 70 people are injured in Alabama and Georgia, with more than $12 million in property damage.

1992–Boxer, Mike Tyson, is convicted of raping Desiree Washington.

1992–Author, Alex Haley, dies of a heart attack in Seattle, Washington, at age 72. He is best known as the author of the 1976 book, Roots: The Saga of an American Family. Roots was adapted into a popular mini-series by ABC-TV in 1977.

1996–After three hours, world chess champion, Gary Kasparov, loses the first game of a six-game match against Deep Blue, an IBM computer capable of evaluating 200 million moves per second. Man was ultimately victorious over machine, however, as Kasparov bested Deep Blue in the match with three wins and two ties, taking home the $400,000 prize. An estimated six million people worldwide followed the action on the Internet.

1997–Meteorologist, Jerome Namias, dies of complication from a stroke in La Jolla, California, at age 87. He was the first to head the Extended Forecast Division of the U.S. Weather Bureau. He pioneered 5-day, 30-day, and 90-day extended forecasts, and long range seasonal forecasts.

1998–Voters in Maine repeal a gay rights law passed in 1997, becoming the first U.S. state to abandon such a law.

1999–It is announced that BPI Communications is suspending publication of its Musician magazine after 21 years.

1999–A Federal Judge orders American Airlines pilots back to work after their sickout grounds 2,500 flights, strands 200,000 travelers, and cripples cargo carriers.

2000–Actor, Jim Varney, dies of lung cancer in White House, Tennessee, at age 50. He is best known for his character, Ernest P. Worrell, who was used in numerous TV commercial campaigns and movies.

2001–Abraham Beame, New York City’s first Jewish Mayor, dies of complications from open-heart surgery, in New York, New York, at age 94.

2001–Saxophonist, Buddy Tate, dies of cancer in a nursing home in Chandler, Arizona, at age 85. Tate was one of the oldest surviving members of the Count Basie Orchestra.

2003–Ron Ziegler, Press Secretary for President Richard Nixon, dies of a heart attack in Coronado, California, at age 63.

2005–Playwright, Arthur Miller, dies of heart failure in Roxbury, Connecticut, at age 89. His works include Death of a Salesman, An Enemy of the People, and The Crucible. He wrote the screenplay for the film The Misfits, which starred his wife, Marilyn Monroe.

2007–General David Petraeus takes charge of U.S. forces in Iraq.

2007–Businessman, Charles Rudolph Walgreen, Jr., dies in Northfield, Illinois, at age 100. The son of Charles Rudolph Walgreen, the founder of the Walgreen drug store, he took over the company after the death of his father in 1939. He was the president of Walgreens from 1939 until 1963. Shortly before his death, Charles Rudolph Walgreen, Jr. donated 10 million dollars to the University of Michigan.

2008–The 50th Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Amy Winehouse for Rehab; Album of the Year: Herbie Hancock for River–The Joni Letters; Song of the Year: Amy Winehouse (songwriter) for Rehab; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Justin Timberlake for What Goes Around.../...Comes Around; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Amy Winehouse for Rehab; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: Maroon 5 for Making Me Wonder; Best Country & Western Performance: Keith Urban for Stupid Boy; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Prince for Future Baby Mama; Best Rock Performance: Bruce Springsteen for Radio Nowhere; Best Instrumental Performance: Joni Mitchell for One Week Last Summer; Best Rap Performance: Kanye West for Stronger; Best New Artist: Amy Winehouse. The ceremonies are held at Staples Center in Los Angeles, California. There is no host.

2008–Actor, Roy Scheider, dies of multiple myeloma in Little Rock, Arkansas at age 76. He appeared in the films Klute, The French Connection, Jaws, Marathon Man, All That Jazz, Still of the Night, 2010, 52 Pick-Up, and The Rainmaker.

2009–Communication satellites Iridium 33 and Kosmos-2251 collide in orbit, and both are destroyed.

2011–Egyptian President, Hosni Mubarak, refuses to step down or leave the country, and instead hands his powers to his vice president.

2011–Former Playboy model, Camille Donatacci, divorces actor, Kelsey Grammer, after 14 years of marriage. This was played out on the first season of the reality TV series The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills.

2013–A stampede in Allahabad, India, during the Kumbh Mela festival, kills 36 people and injures 39 others.

2013–The 55th Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Gotye featuring Kimbra for Somebody That I Used To Know; Album of the Year: Mumford & Sons for Babel; Song of the Year: Jack Antonoff, Jeff Bhasker, Andrew Dost, and Nate Ruess (songwriters) for We Are Young; Best Vocal Performance, Male: No award given; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Adele for Set Fire to the Rain; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: Gotye featuring Kimbra for Somebody That I Used To Know; Best Country & Western Performance: Carrie Underwood for Blown Away; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Usher for Climax; Best Rock Performance: The Black Keys for Lonely Boy; Best Instrumental Performance: Chris Botti for Impressions; Best Rap Performance: Jay-Z and Kanye West for Ni**as in Paris; Best New Artist: Fun. The ceremonies are held at Staples Center in Los Angeles, California. The host is LL Cool J.

2014–Child star, Shirley Temple, dies of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Woodside, California, at age 85. Temple began her film career in 1932, at the age of three. In 1934, she found international fame in Bright Eyes, a feature film designed specifically for her acting, singing, and dancing talents. Temple announced her official retirement from films on December 16, 1950. As an adult, Temple had a second career in politics.

2016–Two female suicide bombers kill more than 60 people at a camp for displaced people in Dikwa, Nigeria.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Queen Catherine Howard; Queen Victoria marries Albert von Saksen-Coburg; Boris Pasternak; Lon Chaney, Jr.; Neva Patterson; Leontyne Price; Robert Wagner; Roberta Flack; Peter Allen; Mark Spitz; Annette Funicello; Beatles fans February 1964; Laura Dern; Laurie Dhue; Frank Zappa's album 200 Motels; John Lennon's Live in New York City album; Alex Haley; Jim Varney; Arthur Miller and Marilyn Monroe; Roy Scheider; and Shirley Temple.

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