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1992–Texas billionaire, Ross Perot, appears on CNN’s Larry King Live, and says he will run for President of the United States if his name is placed on the ballot in all 50 states. It was, and a surprisingly large number of Americans cast their vote for the diminutive Southerner.

702–Mayan King, K'inich Kan B'alam II, dies at age 66.

922–Byzantine Empress, Theodora, dies. She was the only wife of Romanos I and is traditionally considered the mother of all his legitimate children.

1054–Yaroslav the Wise, Grand Prince of Kiev and Novgorod, dies at age 76.

1154–Saint Wulfric of Haselbury dies in Haselbury Plucknett, Somerset, England, at age 74. He was an anchorite and miracle worker in Wiltshire and Somerset, England, frequently visited by King Stephen. He became known as a healer of body, mind, and spirit for all those who sought him out.

1171–Conan IV, Duke of Brittany, dies at age 33.

1194–Tancred, King of Sicily, dies in Palermo, Italy.

1258–Al-Musta'sim, Iraqi caliph, dies at age 45.

1339–The Milanese Army and the St. George's (San Giorgio) Mercenaries of Lodrisio Visconti clash in the Battle of Parabiago.

1358–Eleanor of Aragon, Queen of John I of Castile, is born in Santa Maria del Puig, Spain.

1431–Pope Martin V dies of apoplexy in Rome, Papal States, at age 62.

1472–Orkney and Shetland are pawned by Norway to Scotland in lieu of a dowry for Margaret of Denmark.

1513–King John of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, dies after being thrown from his horse at Aalborghus Castle, Aalborg, Denmark, at age 58.

1524–Mayan ruler, Tecun Uman, dies in battle near Quetzaltenango. He was one of the last rulers of the K'iche' Maya people, in the highlands of what is now Guatemala.

1547–At the age of 10, Edward VI is crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey, in London, England. He was a mere figurehead, but during his brief reign, Edward demonstrated impressive piety and intelligence.

1595–Archduke Ernest of Austria dies in Brussells, Belgiumm at age 41. He was the son of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, and Maria of Spain.

1618–Philip William, Prince of Orange, dies in Brussels, Southern Netherlands, at age 63.

1685–René-Robert Cavelier establishes Fort St. Louis at Matagorda Bay, forming the basis for France's claim to Texas.

1707–Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb, dies in Ahmednagar, Mughal Empire, at age 88. He was the sixth Mughal Emperor and ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent during some parts of his reign.

1790–Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II, dies a broken man from lingering ill health in Vienna, Austria, at age 48. He was the brother of Marie Antoinette.

1792–The Postal Service Act, establishing the United States Post Office Department, is signed by President George Washington.

1798–Louis Alexandre Berthier removes Pope Pius VI from power.

1805–The Potomac River is re-opened after being closed by ice for two months.

1810–Andreas Hofer, Tirolean patriot and leader of rebellion against Napoleon's forces, is executed.

1811–Austria declares bankruptcy.

1813–Manuel Belgrano defeats the royalist army of Pío de Tristán during the Battle of Salta.

1816–Rossini's opera, The Barber of Seville, premieres at the Teatro Argentina in Rome, Italy.

1835–Concepcion, Chile, is destroyed by an earthquake and 5,000 people are killed.

1846–Polish insurgents lead an uprising in Kraków to incite a fight for national independence.

1848–Businessman, E.H. Harriman, is born in Hempstead, New York. Harriman was nearly 50 years old when he became a director of the Union Pacific Railroad. By May 1898, he was chairman of the executive committee, and from that time until his death his word was law on the Union Pacific system. In 1903, he assumed the office of President of the company. From 1901 to 1909, Harriman was also the President of the Southern Pacific Railroad. At the time of his death, Harriman controlled the Union Pacific, the Southern Pacific, the Saint Joseph and Grand Island, the Illinois Central, the Central of Georgia, the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, and the Wells Fargo Express Company. Estimates of his estate ranged from $70 million to $100 million. Harriman is mentioned in the movie, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, as the commercial baron whose agents become the outlaws’ nemeses. It is Harriman who hires a professional posse to hunt down Butch and Sundance.

1864–During the American Civil War, the Battle of Olustee is fought. It is the largest battle fought in Florida during the war.

1865–The end of the Uruguayan War comes with a peace agreement between President Tomás Villalba and rebel leader, Venancio Flores, setting the scene for the destructive War of the Triple Alliance.

1867–Louise, Princess Royal of England and Duchess of Fife, is born Louise Victoria Alexandra Dagmar at Marlborough House in London, England. She was the third child and the eldest daughter of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra, and a younger sister of King George V.

1872–The Metropolitan Museum of Art opens in New York.

1872–A toothpick manufacturing machine is patented by Silas Noble and JP Cooley.

1872–The hydraulic electric elevator is patented by Cyrus Baldwin.

1872–A machine that manufactures paper bags is patented by Luther Crowell.

1873–The University of California opens its first medical school in San Francisco, California.

1877–Tchaikovsky's ballet, Swan Lake, has its premiere performance at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, Russia.

1887–The Minor League Baseball Association organizes in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

1890–Conman, Michael Romanoff, is born Hershel Geguzin in Lithuania. He posed as Russian Prince, Michael Alexandrovich Dmitri Oblensky Romanoff, from about 1919. He opened Romanoff's restaurant in Beverly Hills, California, in the late 1930s, a popular spot with Hollywood movie stars.

1892–The reviewer for The London Times writes about the previous night's premiere of Oscar Wilde's Lady Windemere's Fan, complaining that all the characters talked alike, just like Oscar Wilde.

1895–The U.S. Congress authorizes a mint in Denver, Colorado.

1895–Frederick Douglass, dies of a heart attack in Washington, D.C., at age 77. He was an African-American social reformer, orator, writer, and statesman.

1898–Eastern Wisconsin experiences its biggest snow storm on record. Racine receives 30 inches, and drifts around Milwaukee measure 15 feet.

1898–Boogie-woogie pioneer, Jimmy Yancey, is born James Edward Yancey in Chicago, Illinois. He was a mainstay in the jazz and blues circles in Chicago, playing at after-hours joints and rent parties. Piano pieces such as Yancey Stomp and State Street Special became his signature songs. No matter what key he played in, he ended every song in the key of E flat. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1986, but, despite his success as a musician, he earned his living for 26 years as a groundskeeper at Comiskey Park for the Chicago White Sox.

1899–Businessman and philanthropist, Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney, is born in Roslyn, New York. As a member of both the Whitney and Vanderbilt families, he inherited a substantial fortune. Whitney became involved in the motion picture industry, notably with his cousin, John Hay Whitney, as a major shareholder backing the Technicolor Corporation. The two were also financiers for the 1939 film classic Gone with the Wind. He was the third generation of Whitneys to be heavily involved in thoroughbred horse racing. Upon his death, C.V. Whitney owned over 51,000 acres in the Adirondacks, along with a great camp called Deerlands.

1901–The legislature of Hawaii Territory convenes for the first time.

1901–Cecil Harmsworth King, publisher of The Daily Mirror, is born in England.

1901–Architect, Louis Isadore Kahn, is born Itze-Leib Schmuilowsky in Kuressaare, Governorate of Livonia, Russian Empire. He created a style that was monumental and monolithic; his heavy buildings do not hide their weight, their materials, or the way they are assembled. Kahn was one of the most influential architects of the 20th century. His works include Yale University Art Gallery in New Haven, Connecticut; Salk Institute, La Jolla, California; Yale Center for British Art, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut; and Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, Roosevelt Island, New York.

1901–Muhammad Naguib, first President of Egypt, is born Mohamed Naguib Yousef Qotp Elkashlan in Khartoum, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Along with Gamal Abdel Nasser, he was the primary leader of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, which ended the rule of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in Egypt and Sudan. Disagreements with Nasser led to his forced removal from office, and subsequent 18-year house arrest, until his release by President Anwar Sadat in 1972.

1902–Photographer and naturalist, Ansel (Easton) Adams, is born in San Francisco, California. Adams aspired to becoming a pianist until his father presented him with a brownie camera during a family trip to Yosemite National Park. He fell in love with photography during that trip, devoting his time in the upcoming years to camera magazines and mastering darkroom techniques, ultimately developing the zone system. He earned his reputation partly by carrying heavy and awkward large format photographic equipment deep into the wilderness, to preserve the stunning landscapes of the American West. Adams left a rich legacy. His black and white photographs of Yosemite, and other wilderness and landscape subjects, are some of the best known and most sought after photographs in the world. He was instrumental in elevating photography to a fine art. Adams also created the photography department of the San Francisco Art Institute.

1906–Character actor, Gale Gordon, is born Charles T. Aldrich Jr. in New York, New York. He is best remembered for various roles on the sitcom I Love Lucy, and as bank executive, Theodore J. Mooney, on The Lucy Show. When Lucille Ball ended her career, Gordon was the only actor to have co-starred or guest-starred in every weekly series (radio and television) she had produced since the 1940s. He appeared in the films Don’t Give Up the Ship, The 30 Foot Bride of Candy Rock, Visit to a Small Planet, All Hands on Deck, and Speedway.

1909–The “Futurist Manifesto” is published in the French journal Le Figaro.

1910–Businessman, Carl (Edwin) Stotz, is born in Williamsport, Pennsylvania. He founded Little League Baseball.

1913–King O'Malley drives in the first survey peg to mark commencement of work on the construction of Canberra, an entirely planned city in Australia.

1914–John Daly, host of the TV game show, What's My Line?, is born John Charles Patrick Croghan Daly in Johannesburg, South Africa. The show lasted for 17 years, with Daly hosting all but four episodes of the weekly series.

1915–The Panama-Pacific International Exposition opens in San Francisco, California.

1919–Habibullah Khan, Emir of Afghanistan (1901-1919), dies by assassination while on a hunting trip in Kalagosh, Afghanistan, at age 46.

1920–Arctic explorer, Robert Edwin Peary, dies in Washington, D.C., at age 63. He claimed to have reached the geographic North Pole with his expedition on April 6, 1909. Peary's claim was widely credited for most of the 20th century, rather than the competing claim by Frederick Cook, who said he got there a year earlier. Both claims were widely debated in newspapers until 1913.

1921–The Young Communist League of Czechoslovakia is founded.

1923–Politician, Forbes Burnham, is born Linden Forbes Sampson Burnham in Kitty, Georgetown, East Coast Demerara, British Guiana, British Empire. He was the second President of Guyana.

1924–American heiress, socialite, and designer, Gloria (Laura) Vanderbilt, is born in New York, New York. She became heiress to a half share in a $5 million trust fund upon her father's death when she was 18 months old. The rights to control the trust fund while Vanderbilt was a minor belonged to her mother, who traveled to and from Paris for years, taking Gloria along. After a court battle for her custody, Vanderbilt was raised in luxury at her aunt Gertrude's mansion in Old Westbury, Long Island, New York, surrounded by cousins her age who lived in houses circling the vast estate. The story of the trial was told in a 1982 miniseries for NBC-TV, Little Gloria... Happy at Last. Vanderbilt is best known as a designer of signature blue jeans. She was married to conductor, Leopold Stokowski; director, Sidney Lumet; and author, Wyatt Emory Cooper (Vanderbilt and Cooper are the parents of CNN news anchor and commentator, Anderson Cooper).

1925–Film director, Robert (Bernard) Altman, is born in Kansas City, Missouri. Altman was considered a "maverick" filmmaker: he developed a reputation for being "anti-Hollywood" and non-conformist in both his themes and directing style. He is consistently ranked as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers in history. His films include M*A*S*H, Nashville, A Wedding, Quintet, Popeye, Come Back to the Five and Dime, Jimmy Dean, Jimmy Dean, Streamers, Vincent & Theo, The Player, Short Cuts, Ready to Wear, Gosford Park, The Company, and A Prairie Home Companion.

1926–Writer and screenwriter, Richard (Burton) Matheson, is born in Allendale, New Jersey. His books include I Am Legend, The Shrinking Man, A Stir of Echoes, The Comedy of Terrors, Hell House, and What Dreams May Come. His films include The Incredible Shrinking Man, Beat Generation, Master of the World, Burn Witch Burn, Tales of Terror, The Last Man on Earth, The Omega Man, and Somewhere in Time.

1927–Actor, Sidney Poitier, is born in Miami, Florida. In 1964, he became the first black person to win an Academy Award for Best Actor for his role in Lilies of the Field. He also appeared in the films No Way Out, Blackboard Jungle, Edge of the City, The Defiant Ones, Porgy and Bess, A Raisin in the Sun, Paris Blues, Pressure Point, A Patch of Blue, The Slender Thread, To Sir, With Love, In the Heat of the Night, Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner?, For Love of Ivy, Brother John, Little Nikita, and Sneakers.

1929–Actress, Amanda Blake, is born Beverly Louise Neill in Buffalo, New York. She is best known for the role of Miss Kitty Russell on the long-running Western TV series Gunsmoke. She appeared in the films Stars in My Crown, Duchess of Idaho, Sunny Side of the Street, Cattle Town, Lili, About Mrs. Leslie, A Star Is Born, The Glass Slipper, and High Society.

1931–The state of California gets approval from the U.S. Congress to build the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge.

1933–Adolf Hitler secretly meets with German industrialists to arrange for financing of the Nazi Party's upcoming election campaign.

1933–The U.S. Congress proposes the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution that will end Prohibition in America.

1934–Virgil Thomson's opera, Four Saints in Three Acts, opens in New York with the librettist, Gertrude Stein, present in the audience after years abroad.

1934–Auto racer, Bobby Unser, is born Robert William Unser in Colorado Springs, Colorado. He is one of 10 drivers to win the Indianapolis 500 three or more times. He is the brother of Al Unser, Jerry Unser, and Louis Unser; the father of Robby Unser; and the uncle of Al Unser, Jr. and Johnny Unser.

1935–Caroline Mikkelsen is the first woman to reach Antarctica.

1937–Singer, Nancy Wilson, is born in Chillicothe, Ohio. Her biggest hit was (You Don’t Know) How Glad I Am.

1938–Actor, Richard Beymer, is born George Richard Beymer, Jr. in Avoca, Iowa. He appeared in the films Indiscretion of an American Wife, Johnny Tremain, The Diary of Anne Frank, High Time, West Side Story, Bachelor Flat, Five Finger Exercise, Hemingway’s Adventures of a Young Man, and The Stripper.

1941–Native American singer-songwriter, Buffy Sainte-Marie, is born Beverly Sainte-Marie on the Piapot Cree First Nations Reserve in the Qu'Appelle Valley, Saskatchewan, Canada. Her songs include Circle Game, Soldier Blue, and Fallen Angels.

1942–Lieutenant Edward O'Hare becomes America's first World War II flying ace.

1942–Politician, Mitch McConnell, is born in Sheffield, Alabama. He is the senior U.S. Senator from Kentucky and has been serving the longest in the state’s history.

1942–Actor, Peter (Lawrence) Strauss, is born in Croton-on-Hudson, New York. He is best known for the starring role in the TV mini-series Rich Man, Poor Man. He appeared in the films Soldier Blue, The Trial of the Catonsville Nine, The Last Tycoon, Spacehunter: Adventures in the Forbidden Zone, Nick of Time, and License to Wed.

1943–The Parícutin volcano begins to form in Parícutin, Mexico.

1943–American movie studio executives agree to allow the Office of War Information to censor movies.

1943–The Saturday Evening Post publishes the first of Norman Rockwell's Four Freedoms paintings in support of President Franklin Roosevelt's 1941 State of the Union address theme of “Four Freedoms.”

1943–Phil Wrigley and B. Rickey charter the All-American Girls Softball League. These teams would play until the end of World War II.

1943–Film director and screenwriter, Mike Leigh, is born in Brocket Hall, Welwyn, Hertfordshire, England. In the 1970s and 1980s, his career moved between theatre work and making films for BBC Television, many of which were characterised by a gritty "kitchen sink realism" style. His full-length films include Bleak Moments, High Hopes, Life Is Sweet, Naked, Secrets & Lies, Career Girls, Topsy-Turvy, Vera Drake, and Happy-Go-Lucky. He was married to actress, Alison Steadman.

1944–U.S. war planes begin bombing German manufacturing plants during World War II.

1944–In World War II, the United States takes Eniwetok Island.

1944–Trumpet player, Lew Soloff, of Blood, Sweat & Tears, is born Lewis Michael Soloff in Brooklyn, New York.

1946–Actress, Brenda Blethyn, is born Brenda Anne Bottle in Ramsgate, Kent, England. She appeared in the films The Witches, A River Runs Through It, Secrets & Lies, Girl’s Night, Little Voice, Music from Another Room, and Saving Grace.

1946–Actress, Sandy Duncan, is born Sandra Kay Duncan in Henderson, Texas. She is best known for her performances in the Broadway revival of Peter Pan. She appeared in the films Midnight Cowboy, The Million Dollar Duck, Star Spangled Girl, and The Cat from Outer Space.

1946–J. Geils, of The J. Geils Band, is born John Warren Geils, Jr. in New York, New York. The group’s biggest hit was Centerfold.

1947–A chemical mixing error causes an explosion that destroys 42 blocks in Los Angeles, California.

1947–Actor, Peter (Lawrence) Strauss, is born in Croton-on-Hudson, New York. He is best known for his starring role in the television mini-series Rich Man, Poor Man. He appeared in the films Hail Hero!, Soldier Blue, The Last Tycoon, Spacehunter: Adventures in the Forbidden Zone, Men Don’t Tell, Nick of Time, and License to Wed.

1948–Actress, Jennifer O'Neill, is born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. She was a model for Cover Girl cosmetics in the 1970s. She has appeared in the films For Love of Ivy, Rio Lobo, Summer of ‘42, Such Good Friends, The Reincarnation of Peter Proud, and Scanners.

1949–A nine-year old Ricky Nelson joins the cast of his parents' NBC Radio show, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, replacing a child actor who'd been portraying him.

1949–Model, Ivana Trump, is born Ivana Marie Zelnickova in Gottwaldov, Czechoslovakia. She was married to real estate magnate, Donald Trump, and their children are Donald Trump, Jr., Ivanka Trump, and Eric Trump. After her divorce from Trump, it is rumored that she received $20 million, the $14 million family estate in Connecticut, a $5 million housing allowance, $350,000 annual alimony, all of her jewelry and 49% of Mar-A-Lago, the family home in Palm Beach, Florida, which also serves as a private club for the Palm Beach elite.

1950–Dylan Thomas arrives in New York for his first series of American poetry readings.

1950–Walter (Carl) Becker, singer and bassist of Steely Dan, is born in Queens, New York. After he and partner, Donald Fagen, disbanded the group, he relocated to Hawaii and reduced his musical activity, working primarily as a record producer. The group’s hits include Do It Again, Reelin’ in the Years, My Old School, Rikki Don’t Lose That Number, Pretzel Logic, Peg, Deacon Blues, FM (No Static at All), and Josie.

1951–Actor, Edward Albert, is born Edward Laurence Heimberger in Los Angeles, California. He appeared in the films Butterflies Are Free, 40 Carats, Midway, The Greek Tycoon, The Squeeze, When Time Ran Out..., Galaxy of Terror, and Guarding Tess. He was the son of actor, Eddie Albert.

1951–(James) Gordon Brown, British Prime Minister (2007–2010), is born in Giffnock, Renfrewshire, Scotland.

1951–Randy California, guitarist with Spirit, is born Randolph Craig Wolfe in Los Angeles, California. When he was working in Jimi Hendrix’s band, Jimmy James and the Blue Flames, the stage name "Randy California" was given to him by Hendrix to distinguish him from another Randy in the band (who Hendrix dubbed "Randy Texas").

1952–Emmett Ashford becomes the first African-American umpire in organized baseball by being authorized to be a substitute umpire in the Southwestern International League.

1953–Musician, Poison Ivy, is born Kristy Marlana Wallace in San Bernardino, California. She is a guitarist, songwriter, arranger, producer, and occasional vocalist who co-founded the rockabilly band The Cramps.

1954–American heiress, Patty Hearst, is born Patricia Campbell Hearst in San Francisco, California. In 1974, Patty Hearst gained notoriety when she was kidnapped by, and later joined, the Symbionese Liberation Army. Apprehended after having taken part in a bank heist with other SLA members, Hearst was imprisoned for almost two years before her sentence was commuted by President Jimmy Carter. As an actress, she appeared in the films Cry-Baby, Serial Mom, Bio-Dome, and A Dirty Shame. Her grandfather was William Randolph Hearst, and her father was Randolph Apperson Hearst, both of the Hearst publishing dynasty.

1956–The U.S. Merchant Marine Academy becomes a permanent Service Academy.

1959–The Avro Arrow program to design and manufacture supersonic jet fighters in Canada is cancelled by the Diefenbaker government amid much political debate.

1960–Comedian, Joel (Gordon) Hodgson, is born in Stevens Point, Wisconsin. He was one of the creators of the TV comedy show, Mystery Science Theater 3000 (MST3K). In 2007, MST3K was listed as one of the top 100 television shows of all time by Time.com. Hodgson created MST3K in 1988, and it originally aired on KTMA, before becoming one of the first two shows to be picked up by the Comedy Channel, the forerunner of Comedy Central. He left the show in 1993, after it’s 100th episode, due to a conflict with friend and producer, Jim Mallon.

1962–Astronaut, John Glenn, is the first American to orbit the Earth, making three orbits (in 4 hours, 55 minutes) in Friendship 7.

1962–The Beatles' new manager, Brian Epstein, writes to producer, Bert Kaempfert, in Hamburg, Germany, trying to free the boys from a contract they signed with the Strangers in the Night songwriter in May 1961. Kaempfert agrees, in his letter dated March 3, 1962, requesting only that The Beatles record for Polydor during their seven-week engagement in Hamburg set to begin on April 13th.

1963–The Beatles pose for the cover for their first album, Please Please Me, with photographer, Angus McBean.

1964–A chart topper: Diane by The Bachelors.

1964–Actor, Willie Garson, is born Willie Garson Paszamant in Highland Park, New Jersey. He is known the for roles of Stanford Blatch on the HBO series Sex and the City, and Mozzie in the USA Network series White Collar. He has appeared in the films Troop Beverly Hills, The Adventures of Ford Fairlane, Soapdish, Groundhog Day, Untamed Heart, There's Something About Mary, Being John Malkovich, and Sex and the City.

1965–Spacecraft, Ranger 8, crashes into the Moon after photographing possible landing sites for the Apollo program astronauts.

1966–Supermodel, Cindy Crawford, is born Cynthia Ann Crawford in Dekalb, Illinois. Crawford has appeared on hundreds of magazine covers throughout her career, and is known for her seemingly ageless beauty. She was married to actor, Richard Gere.

1967–The Intergovernmental Group on Indonesia convenes its first meeting in Amsterdam.

1967–Grunge rocker, Kurt (Donald) Cobain, is born in Aberdeen, Washington. After signing with major label DGC Records, his band, Nirvana, found breakthrough success with Smells Like Teen Spirit from its second album, Nevermind. During the last years of his life, Cobain struggled with heroin addiction, illness, and depression. He also had difficulty coping with his fame and public image, and the professional and lifelong personal pressures surrounding himself and his wife, Courtney Love.

1967–Actress, Lili (Ann) Taylor, is born in Glencoe, Illinois. She has appeared in the films Mystic Pizza, Say Anything, Born on the Fourth of July, Dogfight, Arizona Dream, Short Cuts, Rudy, Mrs. Parker and the Vicious Circle, Ready to Wear, I Shot Andy Warhol, Ransom, A Slipping-Down Life, The Haunting, and The Notorious Betty Page.

1970–Cheyenne Brando is born Tarita Cheyenne Brando in Tahiti. She was the daughter of actor, Marlon Brando.

1971–The U.S. Emergency Broadcast System is accidentally activated in an erroneous national alert.

1972–Journalist and radio broadcaster, Walter Winchell, dies of prostate cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 74. At one time he was the most widely read and listened to gossip columnists in the world, with a radio broadcast that started out with the words, “Good evening Mr. and Mrs. America, from border to border and coast to coast, and all the ships at sea.” Winchell spent his final two years as a recluse at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, California.

1974–Cher files for separation from Sonny Bono after 10 years of marriage.

1975–The USSR conducts a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh.

1975–Margaret Thatcher is elected leader of the British Conservative Party.

1975–In a New York court, Judge Griesa orders that the illegal John Lennon Roots LP should be withdrawn from sale, pending final legal judgment. In fact, Capitol Records had already pressured TV stations not to take ads for the unofficial album. Exactly a year later, Lennon’s case against Morris Levy concludes with the judge ruling in favor of the former Beatle: John is awarded $144,700 in damages.

1976–Evangelist, Kathryn Kuhlman, dies of complications from open heart surgery in Tulsa, Oklahoma, at age 68. Kuhlman traveled extensively around the United States and in many other countries, holding "healing crusades" between the 1940s and 1970s. She was one of the most well known healing ministers in the world.

1979–An earthquake cracks Sinila volcanic crater in Dieng Plateau, releasing poisonous gas that kills 149 villagers in the Indonesian province of Central Java.

1981–Yoko Ono releases the single, Walking on Thin Ice, in the U.K. This was the track John Lennon had been working on the night he died.

1986–The Soviet Union launches its Mir spacecraft. Remaining in orbit for 15 years, it is occupied for a full decade.

1987–A bomb blamed on the Unabomber explodes by a computer store in Salt Lake City, Utah.

1988–Peter Kalikow purchases The New York Post from Rupert Murdoch for $37.6 million.

1988–The Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast votes to secede from Azerbaijan to join Armenia, triggering the Nagorno-Karabakh War.

1988–Singer, Rihanna, is born Robyn Rihanna Fenty in Saint Michael, Barbados. Her third studio album, Good Girl Gone Bad in 2007, and its chart-topping lead single, Umbrella, were major breakthroughs in her career that brought her to widespread prominence. She has sold more than 50 million albums and 190 million singles worldwide, making her one of the best-selling artists of all time.

1989–An IRA bomb destroys a section of a British Army barracks in Ternhill, England.

1991–A gigantic statue of Albania's longtime leader, Enver Hoxha, is brought down in the Albanian capital of Tirana, by mobs of angry protesters.

1991–The 33rd Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Phil Collins for Another Day in Paradise; Album of the Year: Quincy Jones for Back on the Block; Song of the Year: Julie Gold (songwriter) for From a Distance; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Roy Orbison for Oh Pretty Woman; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Mariah Carey Vision of Love; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: Aaron Neville and Linda Ronstadt for All My Life; Best Country & Western Performance: Vince Gill for When I Call Your Name; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Luther Vandross for Here and Now; Best Rock Performance: Eric Clapton for Bad Love; Best Instrumental Performance: Angelo Badalamenti for Twin Peaks Theme; Best Rap Performance: M.C. Hammer for U Can't Touch This; Best New Artist: Mariah Carey. The ceremonies are held at Radio City Music Hall, New York. There is no host. John Lennon is posthumously awarded a Lifetime Achievement Grammy Award. Yoko Ono accepts the award on his behalf.

1992–Texas billionaire, Ross Perot, appears on CNN’s Larry King Live, and says he will run for President of the United States if his name is placed on the ballot in all 50 states. It was, and a surprisingly large number of Americans cast their vote for the diminutive Southerner.

1992–Actor, Dick York, dies of emphysema in East Grand Rapids, Michigan, at age 63. He is best known as the first “Darren” on the TV series Bewitched. He appeared on the TV shows Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Playhouse 90, The Millionaire, The Untouchables, The Twilight Zone, Naked City, Dr. Kildare, Rawhide, Wagon Train, Thriller, and Route 66.

1993–Ferruccio Lamborghini, Italian auto-designer, dies after suffering a heart attack in Perugia, Umbria, Italy, at age 76. In 1963, he created Automobili Lamborghini, a maker of high-end sports cars in Sant'Agata Bolognese.

1999–Film critic, Gene Siskel, dies from complications of surgery for brain cancer in Evanston, Illinois, at age 53. He was a film critic and journalist for The Chicago Tribune. Along with colleague Roger Ebert, he hosted a series of popular review shows from 1975 to 1999.

2001–Actress, Rosemary DeCamp, dies of pneumonia in Newport Beach, California, at age 90. She appeared in the films Yankee Doodle Dandy, Rhapsody in Blue, Nora Prentiss, On Moonlight Bay, Scandal Sheet, By the Light of the Silvery Moon, Many Rivers to Cross, and 13 Ghosts.

2003–During a Great White concert in West Warwick, Rhode Island, a pyrotechnics display sets the nightclub ablaze, killing 100 people and injuring over 200 others.

2004–Pop singer, Brian Wilson, plays his 1960s masterpiece, Smile, live for the first time at the Royal Albert Hall in London, England.

2005–Spain becomes the first country to vote in a referendum on ratification of the proposed Constitution of the European Union, passing it by a substantial margin.

2005–Celebrity chef, Bobby Flay, marries actress, Stephanie March at St. Peter's Episcopal Church in New York City.

2005–Actress, Sandra Dee, dies of complications from kidney disease in Thousand Oaks, California, at age 62. She is best known for her starring role in the film Gidget. She also appeared in the films Until They Sail, The Reluctant Debutante, Imitation of Life, A Summer Place, Portrait in Black, Romanoff and Juliet, Tammy Tell Me True, Come September, If a Man Answers, Tammy and the Doctor, Take Her, She’s Mine, I’d Rather Be Rich, That Funny Feeling, Doctor, You’ve Got to Be Kidding!, and The Dunwich Horror.

2005–Actor, John Raitt, dies of pneumonia in Pacific Palisades, California, at age 88. He is best known for his stage roles in the musicals Carousel, Oklahoma!, The Pajama Game, Carnival in Flanders, Three Wishes for Jamie, and A Joyful Noise.

2005–Journalist and author, Hunter S. Thompson, dies from a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head in Woody Creek, Colorado, at age 67. He is best known for his book Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, published in 1972, which quickly became a cult classic.

2006–In South Korea, the United Liberal Democrats (the three top political parties) are merged into the Grand National Party.

2006–Sportscaster, Curt Gowdy, dies of leukemia in Palm Beach, Florida, at age 86.

2009–Hershey's, the largest U.S. candy maker, closes its factory in Reading, Pennsylvania. The factory produced Zagnut, York Peppermint Pattie, and 5th Avenue candy bars. The company moved this production to a new factory in Monterey, Mexico.

2009–Two Tamil Tigers aircraft packed with C4 explosives en route to the national airforce headquarters are shot down in a kamikaze style attack by the Sri Lankan military before reaching their target.

2010–Heavy rain causes floods and mudslides in Madeira Island, Portugal, killing at least 43 people.

2010–Politician, Alexander Haig, dies from complications of a staphylococcal infection at Johns Hopkins Medical Center in Baltimore, Maryland, at age 85. He was the 59th U.S. Secretary of State under President Ronald Reagan.

2013–The smallest Extrasolar planet, Kepler-37b is discovered.

2014–Dozens of Euromaidan anti-government protesters die in Kiev, Ukraine, many reportedly killed by snipers.

2014–Newsman, Garrick Utley, dies of prostate cancer in New York, New York, at age 74. Utley covered the Vietnam War and became one of the first network reporters based in Saigon in 1964.

2015–Two trains collide in Rafz, Switerland, injuring as many as 49 people. Swiss Federal Railways cancels some services.

2016–Six people are killed and two others are injured in multiple shooting incidents in Kalamazoo County, Michigan.

2016–Winemaker, Peter Mondavi, dies of natural causes in in St. Helena, California, at age 101. His parents bought the Charles Krug winery in Napa Valley, California, in 1943, and on his father's death 16 years later, the business was split between Peter Mondavi and his brother, Robert. Mondavi was recognised by Wine Spectator as one of the "Napa Mavericks" who pioneered the industry in the valley.

2017–Seattle-based Amazon.com says it will create 15,000 new full-time jobs across Europe by the end of 2017, increasing its European workforce by approximately 30%.

2017–Former pop singer, David Cassidy, announces that he has been diagnosed with dementia, a condition that runs in his family: his grandfather and his mother also suffered from the incurable condition.

2017–The Ronald Gardenswartz Jewish Community Center in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is evacuated for the second time, following a bomb threat

2017–At least 11 people, all belonging to the same family, are killed in a grenade attack on their home in Laghman Province, Afghanistan.

2018–Venezuela launches its Petro cryptocurrency, which it claims is the world's first sovereign cryptocurrency.

2018–Indonesia's Mount Sinabung makes a massive eruption, completely destroying the volcano's peak, with ash reaching over four miles high. Much of the surrounding area is covered with ash.

2018–Seven provinces in New Zealand declare states of emergency as Cyclone Gita makes landfall.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Mayan King, K'inich Kan B'alam II; Edward VI; E.H. Harriman; Michael Romanoff with Doris Day; Jimmy Yancey; Lucille Ball and Gale Gordon; Gloria Vanderbilt; Sidney Poitier; Amanda Blake; Richard Beymer; Peter Strauss; Brenda Blethyn; Ricky Nelson; Edward Albert; Joel Hodgson on Mystery Science Theater 3000; The Beatles' first album Please Please Me; Lili Taylor; picture sleeve for Yoko Ono's single Walking on Thin Ice; Rihanna; Ross Perot; Rosemary DeCamp; Sandra Dee; the Hershey factory in Reading, Pennsylvania; and Peter Mondavi, Sr.

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