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2001–The Leaning Tower of Pisa reopens after 11 years. It took $27 million to fortify it, but it didn’t destroy its famous “lean.” As well as cleaning centuries of grime from the Tuscan landmark, restorers helped stabilize its tilt by removing soil from beneath one side of its foundation. Its angle was previously 5.5 degrees from the perpendicular, but is now only 3.99 degrees off straight. Experts say the seven-story bell tower should now be safe from further intervention for at least the next 200 years.



BC 399–Philosopher, Socrates, is sentenced to death.

590–Khosrau II is crowned King of Persia.

706–Byzantine Emperor, Justinian II, has his predecessors, Leontios and Tiberios III, publicly executed in the Hippodrome of Constantinople.

1113–Pope Paschal II issues a bill sanctioning the establishment of the Order of Hospitallers.

1145–Pope Lucius II dies from injuries during battle in Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire.

1214–John, King of England, lands an invasion force at La Rochelle in France.

1377–Ladislaus of Naples is born in Naples, Italy. He begame King of Naples at the age nine.

1458–Ivan the Young is born Ivan Ivanovich in Russia. He was the son of Ivan III of Russia.

1471–Italian ruler, Piero the Unfortunate, is born Piero de' Medici in Florence, Republic of Florence.

1493–While onboard the Niña, Christopher Columbus writes an open letter describing his discoveries and the unexpected items he came across in the New World.

1637–Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, dies in Vienna, Austria. Ferdinand III ascends to the throne.

1642–Galileo Galilei, Italian physicist and astronomer, is born in Pisa, Duchy of Florence, Italy. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy," the "father of modern physics," and the "father of science.”

1690–Constantin Cantemir, Prince of Moldavia, and the Holy Roman Empire sign a secret treaty in Sibiu, stipulating that Moldavia will support the actions led by the House of Habsburg against the Ottoman Empire.

1710–Louis XV of France, is born in the Palace of Versailles, Paris, France.

1726–Politician, Abraham Clark, signer of the Declaration of Independence, is born in Elizabethtown, New Jersey.

1758–Mustard is advertised for the first time in America. And it was Benjamin Franklin who brought the savory condiment to the U.S.

1764–The city of St. Louis, Missouri, is founded as a French trading post by Pierre Laclade Ligue.

1797–Piano maker, Henry Engelhard Steinway, is born Heinrich Engelhard Steinweg in Wolfshagen im Harz, Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (now Langelsheim, Lower Saxony, Germany). He was the founder of the piano company Steinway & Sons.

1798–The Roman Republic is proclaimed after Louis Alexandre Berthier, a general of Napoleon, had invaded the city of Rome five days earlier.

1804–New Jersey becomes the last northern state in the U.S. to abolish slavery.

1804–The Serbian Revolution begins.

1809–Industrialist, Cyrus (Hall) McCormick, is born in Shenandoah Valley, Virginia. He was the founder of the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company, which became part of International Harvester Company in 1902.

1812–Founder of Tiffany & Co., Charles Lewis Tiffany, is born in Killingly, Connecticut. At the age of 25, Tiffany opened a small stationery store and gift shop with a friend. After two years, the store was selling porcelain, clocks, cutlery, glassware, and jewelry. With a reputation for selling only the highest quality goods, Tiffany expanded the store and started producing a line of jewelry. By the late 1800s, Tiffany & Co. had branches in London, England, and Paris, France. In 1887, the firm acquired and sold some of the French crown jewels, cementing the company's reputation.

1820–Feminist activist, Susan B. Anthony, is born Susan Brownell Anthony in Adams, Massachusetts. She was an American social reformer who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement. In 1851, she met Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who became her lifelong co-worker in social reform activities, primarily in the field of women's rights. In 1852, they founded the New York Women's State Temperance Society, and in 1863, they founded the Women's Loyal National League.

1835–The first constitutional law is adopted in modern Serbia.

1842–Postage stamps with adhesive on the back are sold for the first time at the New York City post office.

1870–Stevens Institute of Technology is founded in New Jersey, offering the first Bachelor of Engineering degree in Mechanical Engineering.

1870–Ground is broken for the start of the Northern Pacific Railway near Duluth, Minnesota.

1879–President Rutherford B. Hayes signs a bill allowing female attorneys to argue cases before the U.S. Supreme Court.

1898–The battleship USS Maine explodes and sinks in Havana harbor in Cuba, killing 274 people. This event leads the United States to declare war on Spain.

1901–The association football club, Alianza Lima, is founded in Lima, Peru, under the name Sport Alianza.

1901–Christmas Humphreys, lawyer, writer and Buddhist, is born in England. In 1924, he founded what became the London Buddhist Society, which was to have a seminal influence on the growth of the Buddhist tradition in Britain. His former home in St John's Wood, London, England, is now a Buddhist temple.

1903–Morris Michtom and his wife, Rose, introduce the first teddy bear in America.

1905–Songwriter, Harold Arlen, is born Hyman Arluck in Buffalo, New York. He was a composer of popular music, having written over 500 songs. He composed the songs for The Wizard of Oz, including the classic Over the Rainbow. In the 1940s, he teamed up with lyricist, Johnny Mercer, and they wrote Blues in the Night, That Old Black Magic, Ac-Cent-Tchu-Ate the Positive, Any Place I Hang My Hat is Home, Come Rain or Come Shine, and One for My Baby (and One More for the Road). He also wrote The Man That Got Away, for the 1954 version of the film A Star Is Born.

1905–Politician, Lew Wallace, dies of atrophic gastritis in Crawfordsville, Indiana, at age 77. Wallace served as Governor of the New Mexico Territory at the time of the Lincoln County War and worked to bring an end to the fighting. The story of Wallace’s involvement in the Lincoln County War was told in the film Young Guns II, and he is played by actor, Scott Wilson.

1907–Actor, Cesar Romero, is born Cesar Julio Romero, Jr. in New York, New York. He is best known for the role of The Joker in the TV series Batman. He appeared in the films The Gay Caballero, Week-End in Havana, Orchestra Wives, The Beautiful Blonde from Bashful Bend, Ocean’s 11, Pepe, and Two on a Guillotine.

1909–A fire at the Flores Theater in Acapulco, Mexico, kills 250 people.

1909–Humanitarian, Miep Gies, is born Hermine Santruschitz in Vienna, Austria-Hungary. She was was one of the Dutch citizens who hid Anne Frank, her family, and four other Jews from the Nazis in an annex above Anne's father's business premises during World War II. She retrieved Anne Frank's diary after the family was arrested and kept the papers safe until Otto Frank returned from Auschwitz in 1945.

1913–The first avant-garde art show in America opens in New York City.

1914–Actor, Kevin McCarthy, is born in Seattle, Washington. He is best known for the starring role in the 1956 science fiction film Invasion of the Body Snatchers. He also appeared in the films Death of a Salesman, Nightmare, The Misfits, The Prize, The Best Man, A Big Hand for the Little Lady, Hotel, The Howling, My Tutor, and Innerspace.

1916–Publisher, Ian (Keith) Ballantine, of Ballantine Books, is born in New York, New York. Ballantine Books was one of the earliest publishers of science fiction paperback originals, with writers including Arthur C. Clarke and Frederik Pohl. During the 1960s, they published the first authorized paperback editions of J.R.R. Tolkien's books.

1916–Actress, Mary Jane Croft, is born in Muncie, Indiana. She is best known for the television roles of Betty Ramsey on I Love Lucy, Mary Jane Lewis on The Lucy Show and Here's Lucy, and Clara Randolph on The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet.

1921–The Kingdom of Romania establishes its legation in Helsinki.

1923–Greece becomes the last European country to adopt the Gregorian calendar.

1927–Comedy actor, Harvey (Herschel) Korman, is born in Chicago, Illinois. He is best known for his performances on the sketch comedy series, The Carol Burnett Show. He appeared in the films Lord Love a Duck, The April Fools, Blazing Saddles, High Anxiety, First Family, History of the World Part 1, and Radioland Murders.

1931–Actress, (Patricia) Claire Bloom, is born in Finchley, London, England. In 1952, Bloom was discovered by Hollywood film star, Charlie Chaplin, who had been searching for an actress to co-star with him in Limelight. It became Bloom's film debut, and she became an international film star. She also appeared in the films Richard III, The Brothers Karamazov, Look Back in Anger, The Chapman Report, The Haunting, The Outrage, The Spy Who Came in from the Cold, Charly, The Illustrated Man, Separate Tables, and Crimes and Misdemeanors. She was married to actor, Rod Steiger.

1932–The III Winter Olympic Games close at Lake Placid, New York.

1933–Giuseppe Zangara attempts to assassinate President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt, in Miami, Florida. He instead shoots Chicago, Illinois, Mayor Anton J. Cermak, who dies of his wounds on March 6, 1933.

1934–Computer programmer, Niklaus Wirth, the inventor of PASCAL, is born in Switzerland.

1935–Astronaut, Roger B. Chaffee, is born Roger Bruce Chaffee in Grand Rapids, Michigan. He was an American naval officer and aviator, aeronautical engineer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut in the Apollo program. Chaffee died in 1967, along with fellow astronauts Virgil "Gus" Grissom and Edward H. White during a pre-launch test for the Apollo 1 mission at the Cape Kennedy Air Force Station in Florida.

1936–Aldolph Hitler announces the building of Volkswagens as “the peoples” car.

1941–Big band leader Duke Ellington makes his first recording of the classic Take the A Train at Victor’s Hollywood studio. The song would become the Duke’s signature, receiving a Grammy Hall of Fame Award in 1976.

1941–Songwriter, Brian Holland, of the team Holland-Dozier-Holland, is born in Detroit, Michigan. They were responsible for much of the “Motown sound” and numerous hit records by artists such as Martha and the Vandellas, The Supremes, The Four Tops, and The Isley Brothers. Holland, along with Lamont Dozier, served as the team's musical arranger and producer. He has written or co-written 145 hits in U.S. and 78 in the U.K.

1942–Following an assault by Japanese forces, British General Arthur Percival surrenders. About 80,000 Indian, United Kingdom, and Australian soldiers become prisoners of war, the largest surrender of British-led military personnel in history.

1942–Actress, Sherry Jackson, is born in Wendell, Idaho. She is best known for the role of older daughter, Terry Williams, on The Danny Thomas Show and Make Room for Daddy from 1953 to 1958. She appeared in the films You’re My Everything, The Next Voice You Hear..., When I Grow Up, The Great Caruso, Lorna Doone, and Trouble Along the Way.

1944–Mick Avory, drummer for The Kinks, is born Michael Charles Avory in East Molesey, Surrey, England. He joined the band shortly after their formation in 1964, and remained with them until 1984, when he left amid creative friction with guitarist, Dave Davies. He was the longest-serving member of the band, besides brothers Ray and Dave Davies.

1945–John (Anthony) Helliwell, of Supertramp, is born in Todmorden, Yorkshire, England.

1946–The first electronic general-purpose computer, ENIAC, is formally dedicated at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.

1947–Actress, Marisa Berenson, is born Vittoria Marisa Schiaparelli Berenson in New York, New York. She appeared in the films Death in Venice, Cabaret, Barry Lyndon, S.O.B., and The Secret Diary of Sigmund Freud.

1947–Child actor, Rusty Hamer, is born Russell Craig Hamer in Tenafly, New Jersey. He is best known for the role of the wisecracking, older-than-his-years son of Danny Thomas in the TV series Make Room for Daddy and The Danny Thomas Show.

1949–Gerald Lankester Harding and Roland de Vaux begin excavations at Cave 1 of the Qumran Caves, where they will eventually discover the first seven Dead Sea Scrolls.

1950–The Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China sign a mutual defense treaty.

1950–Walt Disney's animated movie, Cinderella, is released.

1950–David Brown, bass player for Santana, is born in Daly City, California.

1951–Singer, Melissa Manchester, is born in the Bronx, New York. Her hits include Midnight Blue, Just Too Many People, Don’t Cry Out Loud, and You Should Hear How She Talks About You.

1951–Actress, Jane Seymour, is born Joyce Penelope Wilhelmina Frankenberg in Hayes, Middlesex, England. She is best known for the starring role in the TV series Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman. He has appeared in the films Oh! What a Lovely War, Live and Let Die, The Four Feathers, and Somewhere in Time. She was married to actor, James Keach.

1952–King George VI is buried in St. George's Chapel at Windsor Castle in London, England.

1954–Canada and the United States agree to construct the Distant Early Warning Line, a system of radar stations in the far northern Arctic regions of Canada and Alaska.

1954–Joe Turner records the original version of Shake Rattle & Roll for Atlantic Records. But just two months later, a white Western Swing band, Bill Haley & The Comets records it, knocking Big Joe out of the record stores.

1954–Cartoonist, Matt (Abram) Groening, is born in Portland, Oregon. He is the creator of the comic strip, “Life in Hell,” as well as the co-creator of two successful TV series, The Simpsons and Futurama.

1955–Model, Janice (Doreen) Dickinson, is born in Brooklyn, New York. One of the most successful models throughout the 1970s and 1980s, she expanded her profession to reality TV in 2003, by judging for four cycles on America's Next Top Model. She subsequently opened her own modeling agency in 2005, which was documented in the reality TV series The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency.

1957–A chart topper: The Banana Boat Song (Day-O) by Harry Belafonte.

1958–The Dick Clark Show, a Saturday night rock & roll television program, debuts on ABC-TV. The show features appearances by Jerry Lee Lewis, Pat Boone, Connie Francis, Chuck Willis, The Royal Teens, and Johnnie Ray.

1960–Mikey Craig, bass player for Culture Club, is born Michael Emil Craig in Hammersmith, London, England.

1961–The entire U.S. Figure Skating Team dies in the crash of Belgian Sabena Flight 548. In all, 73 people are killed, including coaches and family members of the team.

1962–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1964–A Billboard story headline reads “U.S. Rocks and Reels from Beatles Invasion: Beatles Begin New British Artist Push.” The story goes on to report that “Great Britain hasn't been as influential in American affairs since 1775.” The fame of the Beatles has major and independent firms scrambling for more Britsh product, which starts what came to be known as the (musical) British Invasion.

1964–Comedian, Chris Farley, is born Christopher Crosby Farley in Madison, Wisconsin. He is best known as a cast member of the NBC-TV sketch comedy show, Saturday Night Live, from 1990 to 1995. He appeared in the films Wayne’s World, Coneheads, Airheads, Billy Madison, and Tommy Boy.

1965–A new red-and-white maple leaf design is adopted for the flag of Canada.

1965–Singer, Nat “King” Cole, dies of complications following surgery for lung cancer in Santa Monica, California, at age 45. He began his phenomenal solo career in 1950. Cole had feature roles in the films St. Louis Blues and Cat Ballou, and made many appearances in Hollywood and on TV. His hits include Mona Lisa, Ramblin’ Rose, Unforgettable, Nature Boy, L-O-V-E, Lazy Hazy Crazy Days of Summer, When I Fall in Love, There’ll Never Be Another You, and many others. Nat Cole was posthumously awarded a Lifetime Achievement Grammy in 1990.

1967–The first anti-bootlegging recording laws are enacted.

1967–The 24th Annual Golden Globe Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: A Man for All Seasons; Best Actor: Paul Scofield for A Man for All Seasons; Best Actress: Anouk Aimée for A Man and a Woman; Best Director: Fred Zinnemann for A Man for All Seasons; Best Comedy: The Russians Are Coming, The Russians Are Coming.

1968–John Lennon and George Harrison travel with their wives to Rishikesh, India, to study Transcendental Meditation with the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Paul McCartney, Jane Asher, and Ringo Starr and his wife, Maureen, will follow on February 19th. Ringo and Maureen leave after only 10 days, bored with the routine and sick of the food. Paul and Jane leave on March 26th. John and George (and their wives) leave after 11 weeks (on April 12th), following an accusation (now thought to be untrue) that the Maharishi was attempting to seduce Mia Farrow, who was also studying there at the time.

1968–Musician, Little Walter, dies in his sleep of coronary thrombosis (a blood clot in the heart), in Chicago, Illinois, at age 37. He was a blues singer and harmonica player. His virtuosity and musical innovations fundamentally altered many expectations of what was possible on blues harmonica. He was inducted to the The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2008.

1969–A Florida woman is arrested for impersonating Aretha Franklin during a concert. Vickie Jones' impersonation is so convincing that nobody in the club asks for a refund.

1969–Musician, Pee Wee Russell, dies in Alexandra, Virginia, at age 62. He had a highly individualistic and spontaneous clarinet style that defied classification. He began his career playing Dixieland jazz, but incorporated elements of newer developments such as swing, bebop and free jazz.

1970–The Daughters of the American Revolution impose a ban against rock concerts at their Washington D.C. auditorium, Constitution Hall, after Sly & the Family Stone arrive five hour late for their show and the crowd inflicts $1,000 worth of damage on the building.

1971–After 1,200 years, Britain changes over to decimal currency from pounds, shillings, and pence.

1972–Sound recordings are granted U.S. federal copyright protection for the first time.

1972–José María Velasco Ibarra, serving as President of Ecuador for the fifth time, is overthrown by the military for the fourth time.

1973–Actress, Sarah Wynter, is born in Newcastle, Australia. She is best known for the role of Kate Warner on the TV drama 24. She has also appeared in the the TV shows Stephen King's Dead Zone, Windfall, Damages, and Californication.

1973–Actor, Wally Cox, dies of a heart attack in Hollywood, California, at age 48. He starred in the TV comedy Mr. Peepers (1952-1954). He appeared in the films State Fair, Spencer’s Mountain, Fate is the Hunter, The Yellow Rolls Royce, The Bedford Incident, The Boatniks, and The Barefoot Executive.

1975–Singer, Gino Vannelli, becomes the first white artist to perform on the syndicated TV dance show Soul Train.

1976–The 1976 Constitution of Cuba is adopted by national referendum.

1976–The XII Winter Olympic Games close at Innsbruck, Austria.

1978–Escaped mass murderer, Ted Bundy, is recaptured in Pensacola, Florida.

1978–In a split decision, Leon Spinks takes the Heavyweight Boxing Championship from Muhammad Ali.

1979–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1979–Don Dunstan resigns as Premier of South Australia.

1979–The 21st Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Billy Joel for Just the Way You Are; Album of the Year: The Bee Gees, Yvonne Elliman, K.C. and the Sunshine Band, Kool & the Gang, Walter Murphy, and Tavares & Trammps for Saturday Night Fever Soundtrack; Song of the Year: Billy Joel (songwriter) for Just the Way You Are; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Barry Manilow for Copacabana (At the Copa); Best Vocal Performance, Female: Anne Murray for You Needed Me; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: The Bee Gees for Saturday Night Fever Soundtrack; Best Country & Western Performance: Dolly Parton for Here You Come Again; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Donna Summer for Last Dance; Best Instrumental Performance: Chuck Mangione for Children of Sanchez; Best New Artist: A Taste of Honey. The ceremonies are held at the Shrine Auditorium, Los Angeles, California. The host is John Denver.

1981–Rocker, Mike Bloomfield, dies of a drug overdose in San Francisco, California, at age 37.

1982–An cyclone off the Atlantic coast capsizes a drilling rig, killing 84 people, and sinks a Soviet freighter causing 33 more deaths.

1984–Entertainer, Ethel Merman, dies of brain cancer in New York, New York, at age 76. On the stage, she starred in Annie Get Your Gun, Gypsy, and Hello, Dolly! She appeared in the films Anything Goes, Alexander’s Ragtime Band, Stage Door Canteen, Call Me Madame, and There’s No Business Like Show Business.

1988–Composer, Frederick Loewe, dies in Palm Springs, California, at age 86. He collaborated with lyricist, Alan Jay Lerner, on the long-running Broadway musicals My Fair Lady and Camelot.

1989–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1989–The last Soviet troops leave Afghanistan, ending nine years of military involvement.

1990–Freezing rain over southern New England knocks out electricity to more than 10,000 homes in the western suburbs of Boston, Massachusetts.

1991–The Visegrád Agreement, establishing cooperation to move toward free-market systems, is signed by the leaders of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland.

1992–Serial killer, Jeffrey Dahmer, is found to be sane and guilty of killing 15 boys.

1995–Hacker, Kevin Mitnick, is arrested by the FBI and charged with breaking into some of the United States' most “secure” computer systems.

1995–The population of the People's Republic of China hits 1.2 billion.

1996–At the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in China, a Long March 3 rocket carrying an Intelsat 708, crashes into a rural village after liftoff, killing many people.

1996–There is a mortar attack on the U.S. Embassy in Athens, Greece.

1996–Child actor, Tommy Rettig, dies of a heart attack in Marina del Rey, California, at age 54. He is best known for the role of Jeff Miller in the first three seasons of the TV series Lassie. He appeared in the fims Panic in the Streets, The Jackpot, For Heaven’s Sake, The Strip, Weekend with Father, The 5,000 Fingers of Dr. T, So Big, River of No Return, The Cobweb, and The Last Wagon.

1996–Actor, McLean Stevenson, dies of a heart attack in Los Angeles, California, at age 68. He is best known for the role of Lt. Colonel Henry Blake on the TV series M*A*S*H.

1998–Racecar driver, Dale Earnhardt, wins the Daytona 500 after 20 years of losses.

2000–The Indian Point II nuclear power plant in New York vents a small amount of radioactive steam when a steam generator fails.

2001–The Leaning Tower of Pisa reopens after 11 years. It took $27 million to fortify it, but it didn’t destroy its famous “lean.” As well as cleaning centuries of grime from the Tuscan landmark, restorers helped stabilize its tilt by removing soil from beneath one side of its foundation. Its angle was previously 5.5 degrees from the perpendicular, but is now only 3.99 degrees off straight. Experts say the seven-story bell tower should now be safe from further intervention for at least the next 200 years.

2001–First draft of the complete human genome is published in Nature.

2002–American journalist, Howard K. Smith, dies in Bethesda, Maryland, at age 87. In 1969, he became the co-anchor of the ABC Evening News, first with Frank Reynolds, then later with Harry Reasoner.

2003–Protests against the Iraq war occur in over 600 cities worldwide. Estimates indicate that eight to 30 million people took part, making it the largest peace demonstration in the history of the world.

2004–Up to 11 inches of snow falls in areas south of Nashville, Tennessee, causing power outages and producing hazardous driving conditions.

2005–YouTube, the popular Internet site on which videos may be shared and viewed by others, is launched in the U.S.

2013–A meteor explodes over Chelyabinsk, Russia, injuring 1,500 people as a shock wave blows out windows and rocks buildings.

2016–Former Prime Minister of Israel, Ehud Olmert, begins a 19-month prison sentence for bribery and obstructing justice.

2016–Bosnia and Herzegovina formally apply to join the European Union.

2016–The 58th Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Mark Ronson featuring Bruno Mars for Uptown Funk; Album of the Year: Taylor Swift for 1989; Song of the Year: Ed Sheeran and Amy Wadge (songwriters) for Thinking Out Loud; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Ed Sheeran for Thinking Out Loud; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Taylor Swift for 1989; Best Performance by a Duo or Vocal Group: Mark Ronson featuring Bruno Mars for Uptown Funk; Best Country & Western Performance: Chris Stapleton for Traveller; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: The Weeknd for Earned It (Fifty Shades of Grey); Best Rock Performance: Alabama Shakes for Don’t Wanna Fight; Best Instrumental Performance: Snarky Puppy & Metropole Orkest for Sylva; Best New Artist: Meghan Trainor. The ceremonies are held at the Staples Centre, Los Angeles, California. The host is LL Cool J.

2016–Actor, George Gaynes, dies in North Bend, Washington, at age 98. He is best known for the roles he played on the TV shows Punky Brewster and The Days and Nights of Molly Dodd. He appeared in the films PT 109, The Way We Were, Nickelodeon, Altered States, Tootsie, Micki + Maude, Police Academy, and Wag the Dog.

2016–Singer, Vanity, dies of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis in Fremont, California, at age 57. In 1994, she overdosed on crack cocaine and suffered from near-fatal renal failure. She recalled that after being rushed to the hospital, doctors said she had three days to live while on life support. Upon her recovery, she completely renounced her stage name and career and became a born-again Christian. She stated that she had chosen not to receive any further revenue from her work as Vanity, and cut off all ties with Hollywood and her former life in show business.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Socrates; Louis XV of France; Henry Engelhard Steinway; Susan B. Anthony; Harold Arlen; Kevin McCarthy; Mary Jane Croft; Claire Bloom; Duke Ellington; Rusty Hamer; Walt Disney's Cinderella character; Matt Groening's Big Book of Hell; Nat King Cole; John Lennon and George Harrison on their way to India; Wally Cox; Gino Vannelli; Ethel Merman; Tommy Rettig with Lassie; the Leaning Tower of Pisa; and George Gaynes.

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