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1910–Physicist and inventor, William Shockley, is born William Bradford Shockley Jr. in London, England. Along with John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain, Shockley co-invented the transistor, for which all three were awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics. Shockley's attempts to commercialize a new transistor design in the 1950s and 1960s led to California's "Silicon Valley" becoming a hotbed of electronics innovation.



BC 711–Emperor Jimmu of Japan is born Kamu-yamato Iware-biko no mikoto. According to legend, was the first Emperor of Japan and was a descendant of the sun goddess, Amaterasu, through her grandson Ninigi, as well as a descendant of the storm god, Susanoo.

721–Frankish King, Chilperic II, dies in Attigny, France, at age 49.

858–Scottish King, Kenneth MacAlpin, dies a tumor at the Palace of Cinnbelachoir near Scone in Perth and Kinross, Scotland, at age 48.

1130–Pope Honorius II dies in Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire, at age 70.

1141–Béla II of Hungary dies at age 31.

1258–Baghdad falls to the Mongols and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed.

1332–Byzantine Emperor, Andronikos II Palaiologos, dies as a monk in Constantinople, Byzantine Empire, at age 72.

1457–Mary of Burgundy is born in Brussels, Brabant, Burgundian Netherlands.

1462–The Treaty of Westminster is finalised between Edward IV of England and the Scottish Lord of the Isles.

1542–Queen Catherine Howard, the fifth wife of England's King Henry VIII, is beheaded for adultery.

1575–Henry III of France is crowned at Reims. He marries Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont on the same day.

1599–Pope Alexander VII, is born Fabio Chigi in Siena, Grand Duchy of Tuscany.

1633–Italian astronomer, Galileo Galilei, arrives in Rome, Italy, for his trial before the Inquisition for declaring that the Earth revolves around the Sun.

1635–The first public school in America opens in Boston, Massachusetts.

1660–With the death of King Charles X Gustav, the Swedish government begins to seek peace with Sweden's enemies in the Second Northern War. As his son and successor on the throne, Charles XI, is only four years old, a regency rules Sweden until 1672.

1662–Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, dies of pneumonia in London, England, at age 65. Because her husband’s reign in Bohemia lasted for just one winter, she is often referred to as The Winter Queen.

1668–Spain recognizes Portugal as an independent country.

1689–William and Mary are proclaimed co-rulers of England.

1689–The British Parliament adopts a Bill of Rights.

1692–About 78 Macdonalds at Glen Coe, Scotland, are killed early in the morning for not promptly pledging allegiance to the new king, William of Orange.

1741–The first magazine to be published in the U.S. is The American Magazine (or a Monthly View of the Political State of the British Colonies).

1755–The Treaty of Giyanti is signed by VOC, Pakubuwono III, and Prince Mangkubumi. It divides the Javanese kingdom of Mataram into two: Sunanate of Surakarta and Sultanate of Yogyakarta.

1777–The Marquis de Sade is arrested without charge and imprisoned in a Vincennes fortress.

1784–Ice floes block the Mississippi River at New Orleans, Louisiana, then move into the Gulf of Mexico.

1822–Jeremiah Bailey of Chester county, Pennsylvania, receives a patent for a grass mower. It is two-wheeled, horse-drawn, and can mow 10 acres a day.

1826–The American Temperance Society is founded in Boston, Massachusetts.

1855–Politician, Paul Deschanel, is born Paul Eugène Louis Deschanel in Schaerbeek, Belgium. He was the 11th President of France.

1866–Jesse James and his gang commit the first armed bank robbery in American history in Liberty, Missouri. They got away with $15,000.

1867–Work begins on the covering of the Senne, burying Brussels's primary river and creating the modern central boulevards.

1867–Johann Strauss' Blue Danube waltz premieres in Vienna, Austria.

1870–Pianist and composer, Leopold Godowsky, is born in Russian territory (present-day Lithuania). One of the most highly regarded performers of his time, he became known for his theories concerning the application of relaxed weight and economy of motion in piano playing. As a composer, Godowsky is best known for his transcriptions of works by other composers.

1881–The feminist newspaper, La Citoyenne, is first published by activist, Hubertine Auclert, in Paris, France.

1883–Composer, Richard Wagner, dies of a heart attack at Ca' Vendramin Calergi palazzo on the Grand Canal, Venice, Italy, at age 69.

1885–Bess Truman, wife of President Harry S. Truman, is born Elizabeth Virginia Wallace in Independence, Missouri. She was the 35th First Lady of the United States.

1888–Jean Baptiste Lamy, the first Archbishop of Santa Fe, New Mexico, dies of pneumonia at age 73. On July 23, 1853, the Vicariate of New Mexico was raised to the Diocese of Santa Fe, and Lamy was appointed its first Bishop. His early efforts as Bishop were directed to reforming the New Mexico church, the building of more churches in the territory, the creation of new parishes, and the establishment of schools. Lamy was responsible for the construction of the Cathedral Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi (commonly known as St. Francis Cathedral) and Loretto Chapel in Santa Fe: both churches were built in French styles that were familiar to Lamy.

1891–Artist, Grant Wood, is born Grant DeVolson Wood in Anamosa, Iowa. His most famous painting is “American Gothic.“ It is also one of the few images to reach the status of universally recognized cultural icon (comparable to Leonardo da Vinci's “Mona Lisa” and Edvard Munch's “The Scream”). He was an active painter from an extremely young age, and although he is best known for his paintings, he worked in other media, including lithography, ink, charcoal, ceramics, metal, wood, and found objects.

1895–The Lumiere brothers are granted a patent in France for their machine "to film and view chronophotographic proofs," which is one of the earliest known film projectors.

1898–Upon his release from prison on charges of homosexuality, Oscar Wilde publishes The Ballad of Reading Goal, his description of prison agony.

1910–Physicist and inventor, William Shockley, is born William Bradford Shockley Jr. in London, England. Along with John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain, Shockley co-invented the transistor, for which all three were awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics. Shockley's attempts to commercialize a new transistor design in the 1950s and 1960s led to California's "Silicon Valley" becoming a hotbed of electronics innovation.

1913–The 13th Dalai Lama proclaims Tibetan independence following a period of domination by Manchu Qing Dynasty. This initiates a period of almost four decades of independence.

1913–Khalid bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, King of Saudi Arabia, is born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

1914–The American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) is formed in New York. The performance rights society is instrumental in protecting the rights of composers to earn royalties for the performance of their published and copyrighted works.

1919–Entertainer, Tennessee Ernie Ford, is born Ernest Jennings Ford in Bristol, Tennessee. He was a recording artist and television host who enjoyed success in the Country & Western, pop, and gospel musical genres. Noted for his rich bass-baritone voice and down home humor, he is best remembered for his hit Sixteen Tons. He also sang the theme songs for films such as Man in the Saddle, River of No Return, and The Lonely Man. He appeared on the TV shows I Love Lucy, Make Room for Daddy, The Jack Benny Program, The Red Skelton Hour, and The Johnny Cash Show.

1920–The League of Nations recognizes the perpetual neutrality of Switzerland.

1920–The Negro National League is formed.

1920–Songwriter, (Diadorius) Boudleaux Bryant, is born in Shellman, Georgia. He and his wife, Felice Bryant, wrote many popular songs in the 1950s, including Rocky Top, Love Hurts, and a string of hugely successful songs for The Everly Brothers, which included Bye Bye Love, Wake Up, Little Susie, All I Have to Do Is Dream, Bird Dog, and Devoted to You. Their compositions were recorded by many artists from a variety of musical genres, including Tony Bennett, Eddy Arnold, Charley Pride, Nazareth, Jim Reeves, Leo Sayer, Jerry Lee Lewis, Simon & Garfunkel, Sarah Vaughan, The Grateful Dead, Elvis Costello, Count Basie, Dean Martin, Ray Charles, Gram Parsons, and Bob Dylan. Boudleaux Bryant is the third most successful songwriter of the 1950s on the U.K. Singles Chart.

1923–U.S. test pilot, Chuck Yeagar, is born Charles Elwood Yeager in Myra, West Virginia. In 1947, he was the first man to break the sound barrier.

1930–Dorothy McGuire, of The McGuire Sisters, is born in Middletown, Ohio. The trio had big hits with Sincerely, He, Goodnight, My Love, Sugartime, and May You Always.

1931–The British Raj completes its transfer from Calcutta to New Delhi, India.

1931–Actor and TV game show host, Geoff Edwards, is born Geoffrey Bruce Owen Edwards in Westfield, New Jersey.

1932–Actress, Susan Oliver, is born Charlotte Gercke in New York, New York. She appeared on many TV shows, including Wanted: Dead or Alive, Bonanza, The Twilight Zone, Rawhide, Route 66, Dr. Kildare, The Naked City, The Andy Griffith Show, Burke's Law, The Fugitive, Peyton Place, Star Trek, I Spy, and The Virginian. She appeared in the films BUtterfield 8, Your Cheatin’ Heart, The Disorderly Orderly, and Ginger in the Morning.

1933–Actress, Kim Novak, is born Marilyn Pauline Novak in Chicago, Illinois. She is best known for the role of Judy Barton in the Alfred Hitchcock classic film Verdigo. She also appeared in the films 5 Against the House, Picnic, The Man with the Golden Arm, The Eddy Duchin Story, Jeanne Eagels, Pal Joey, Bell, Book and Candle, Middle of the Night, Strangers When We Meet, Boy’s Night Out, Kiss Me, Stupid, and The Legend of Lylah Clare.

1934–The Soviet steamship Chelyuskin sinks in the Arctic Ocean.

1934–Actor, George Segal, is born in Great Neck, New York. Segal has played both drama and comedy, although he is more often seen in the latter. Originally a stage actor and musician, Segal appeared in several minor films in the early 1960s, and then moved into the mainstream. He appeared in the films The Young Doctors, The Longest Day, The New Interns, King Rat, Ship of Fools, Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, Where’s Poppa?, The Owl and the Pussycat, Blume in Love, A Touch of Class, The Terminal Man, Fun with Dick and Jane, The Last Married Couple in America, and For the Boys.

1935–A jury in Flemington, New Jersey, finds Bruno Hauptmann guilty of the 1932 kidnapping and murder of the Lindbergh baby, the son of aviator, Charles Lindbergh.

1938–Actor, (Robert) Oliver Reed, is born in Wimbledon, London, England. At the peak of his career, British exhibitors voted Reed the fifth most popular star at the box office. He was also quite popular in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s. He was alleged to have been a descendant (through an illegitimate step) of Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia. His films include Beat Girl, The Angry Silence, The Curse of the Werewolf, The Girl-Getters, The Party’s Over, The Trap, The Shuttered Room, I'll Never Forget What's 'is Name, Oliver!, Women in Love, Take a Girl Like You, The Three Musketeers, Tommy, Fanny Hill, and Gladiator.

1940–Earl “Fatha” Hines and his orchestra records Boogie Woogie on St. Louis Blues for the Bluebird label. He was a member of the act of Hines, Hines, and Dad.

1942–Lonnie Johnson records He's a Jelly Roll Baker.

1942–Actress, Carol Lynley, is born Carole Ann Jones in Manhattan, New York. She appeared in the films Blue Denim, Hound-Dog Man, Return to Peyton Place, The Stripper, Under the Yum Yum Tree, Shock Treatment, The Pleasure Seekers, Bunny Lake is Missing, The Shuttered Room, and The Poseidon Adventure.

1942–Peter Tork, of the pop group, The Monkees, is born Peter Halsten Thorkelson in Washington, D.C. Tork was a proficient musician, and though the group generally was not allowed to play their own instruments on their first two albums, he was an exception, playing what he described as "third chair guitar." He played keyboards, bass guitar, banjo, harpsichord, and other instruments on their recordings. He also co-wrote, along with Joey Richards, the closing theme song of the second season of The Monkees, For Pete's Sake. On the television show, he was relegated to playing the "lovable dummy," a persona Tork had developed as a folk singer in New York's Greenwich Village.

1944–Actress, Stockard Channing, is born Susan Antonia Williams Stockard in New York, New York. She got her start in the TV movie, The Girl Most Likely To..., directed by Joan Rivers. She is best known for the role of Rizzo in the film version of Grease. She has appeared in the films The Fortune, Sweet Revenge, Without a Trace, Heartburn, Six Degrees of Separation, To Wong Foo, Thanks for Everything, Julie Newmar, Up Close & Personal, and Must Love Dogs.

1944–TV talk show host, Jerry Springer, is born in Highgate, London, England. In January 1949, Springer emigrated with his parents to the United States, settling in Kew Gardens, Queens, New York. He has duel British-American citizenship. He is a former Democratic Mayor of Cincinnati, Ohio, a news anchor, actor, and musician. His talk show, The Jerry Springer Show debuted on September 30, 1991.

1945–In World War II, Royal Air Force bombers are dispatched to Dresden, Germany, to attack the city with a massive aerial bombardment.

1946–The world's first fully functional electronic digital computer, ENIAC, is turned on for the first time. Weighing 30 tons and filling an entire room, it was about as powerful as a single microchip today.

1947–United Nations Security Council Resolution 18, relating to disarmament, is adopted.

1950–Actress, Ewa (Brigitta) Aulin, is born in Landskrona, Sweden. She is best known for the title role in the cult film, Candy, where she appeared alongside John Huston, Ringo Starr, Walter Matthau, James Coburn, Richard Burton, and Marlon Brando. The only other American film Aulin appeared in was Start the Revolution Without Me.

1950–Rocker, Peter (Brian) Gabriel, is born in Chobham, Surrey, England. He got his start in the group Genesis, and went on to a successful solo career. His best selling album was So, and the video for his song, Sledgehammer, remains the most played music video in the history of MTV.

1951–Actor, David (Walsh) Naughton, is born in Hartford, Connecticut. He is best known for his starring role in the 1981 horror film, An American Werewolf in London. Prior to that, for four years he was the singing-dancing guy in the Dr. Pepper commercials. His brother is actor James Naughton.

1952–Paul (Avron) Jeffreys, of Be-Bop Deluxe, is born in East Ham, London, England.

1954–Frank Selvy becomes the only NCAA Division I basketball player to ever score 100 points in a single game.

1955–Israel obtains four of the seven Dead Sea Scrolls.

1957–Filming is completed on the Englands's first rock and roll movie, Rock You Sinners.

1957–Denise Austin, fitness trainer and author, is born Denise Katnich in San Pedro, California. She had a long-running exercise television program, Getting Fit with Denise Austin, on ESPN2. Her exercise programs often integrate a variety of methods including yoga, pilates, cross training, and aerobic exercise.

1960–France joins the race to the Cold War (thus far comprised of the U.S., USSR, and Britain) by exploding their first atomic bomb over the Sahara Desert in Algeria.

1960–Black college students stage the first of the Nashville sit-ins at three lunch counters in Nashville, Tennessee.

1961–An allegedly 500,000-year-old rock is discovered near Olancha, California, that appears to anachronistically encase a spark plug.

1961–Frank Sinatra unveils his own recording label, Reprise. Although the Chairman of the Board didn't have a very high regard for rock and roll music, the label would release recordings by The Beach Boys, The Kinks, and Jimi Hendrix.

1964–The Beatles fly from New York to Miami Beach, Florida, for their second live appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, to be broadcast from the Deauville Hotel.

1966–The USSR conducts a nuclear test.

1967–American researchers discover the Madrid Codices by Leonardo da Vinci in the National Library of Spain.

1967–Yoshisuke Aikawa, entrepreneur and politician, dies in Tokyo, Japan, at age 86. He founded Nissan Motor Company.

1972–Hard rockers, Led Zeppelin, are forced to cancel a concert in Singapore, when officials won't let them off the plane because of their long hair.

1972–The XI Winter Olympic Games close at Sapporo, Japan.

1973–The U.S. dollar is devalued by 10%.

1974–James “Cool Papa” Bell is elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame.

1974–Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn is expelled from the Soviet Union.

1974–Singer-songwriter, Robbie Williams, is born Robert Peter Williams in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, England. He has sold more than 75 million records worldwide, making him one of the best-selling artists of all time.

1976–Dorothy Hamill wins an Olympics figure-skating gold medal, in Innsbruck, Austria.

1976–Politician, Murtala Mohammed, is assassinated en route to his office at Dodan Barracks, Lagos, Nigeria, at age 37. He was the fourth President of Nigeria.

1976–Opera singer, Lily Pons, dies of pancreatic cancer in Dallas, Texas, at age 77. Pons was a principal soprano at the Metropolitan Opera for 30 years, appearing 300 times in 10 roles from 1931 until 1960. She specialized in the coloratura soprano repertoire.

1978–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1979–An intense windstorm strikes western Washington, sinking a one-half-mile section of the Hood Canal Bridge.

1979–Filmmaker, Jean Renoir, dies in Beverly Hills, California, at age 84. As a film director and actor, he made more than 40 films from the silent era to the end of the 1960s. His films Nana, Grande Illusion, and Rules of the Game are considered masterpieces of cinema.

1980–The XIII Winter Olympic Games open in Lake Placid, New York.

1980–Actor, David Janssen, dies of a heart attack in Malibu, California, at age 48. He is best known for the role or Dr. Richard Kimble on the TV series The Fugitive. He appeared in the films To Hell and Back, All That Heaven Allows, Dondi, My Six Loves, Marooned, Once is Not Enough, and Two-Minute Warning.

1981–A series of sewer explosions destroys more than two miles of streets in Louisville, Kentucky.

1982–The 300-pound gravestone of Lynyrd Skynyrd lead singer, Ronnie Van Zant, is stolen from the cemetery in Orange Park, California. Police find it two weeks later in a dry river bed.

1983–The World Boxing Council cuts a boxing match from 15 to 12 rounds.

1983–A cinema fire in Turin, Italy, kills 64 people.

1984–Konstantin Chernenko succeeds the late Yuri Andropov as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

1984–Capitol Records celebrates the 20th anniversary of The Beatles’ first U.S. visit by reissuing I Want To Hold Your Hand, complete with a reprint of its original black and white picture sleeve. To promote the release, the record company mounts a massive advertising campaign, which includes 40,000 posters and 2,500 t-shirts and pinback buttons. And Life magazine features The Beatles on its cover (just as it did in 1964).

1988–The XV Winter Olympic Games open at Calgary, Canada.

1988–Michael Jackson purchases a ranch in Santa Ynez, California, which he renames "Neverland."

1990–An agreement is reached on a two-stage plan to reunite the two parts of Germany.

1991–Two laser-guided "smart bombs" destroy the Amiriyah shelter in Baghdad, Iraq. The bunker is being used as a military communications outpost, but over 400 Iraqi civilians inside are killed.

1996–Actor, Martin Balsam, dies of a stroke in Rome, Italy, at age 76. He appeared in the films On the Waterfront, 12 Angry Men, Marjorie Morningstar, Middle of the Night, Five Fingers, Psycho, Ada, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, Cape Fear, Seven Days in May, The Carpetbaggers, Youngblood Hawke, A Thousand Clowns, Catch-22, and All the President’s Men.

2000–The last original "Peanuts" comic strip appears in newspapers one day after its creator, Charles M. Schulz, dies.

2001–An 6.6 earthquake hits El Salvador, killing at least 400 people.

2002–Country singer, Waylon Jennings, dies in his sleep of diabetic complications in Chandler, Arizona, at age 64. A total of 16 Jennings' singles reached #1 on the Country Music charts. A part of the country music “outlaw movement,” his hits include I’m a Ramblin’ Man, Luckenbach, Texas, Mammas Don't Let Your Babies Grow Up to Be Cowboys, and Theme from The Dukes of Hazzard (Good Ol' Boys).

2004–The Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics announces the discovery of the universe's largest known diamond, white dwarf star BPM 37093. Astronomers name the star "Lucy" in honor of The Beatles' song Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds.

2005–The 47th Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Ray Charles and Norah Jones for Here We Go Again; Album of the Year: Ray Charles and Various Artists for Genius Loves Company; Song of the Year: John Mayer for Daughters; Best Vocal Performance, Male: John Mayer for Daughters; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Norah Jones for Sunrise; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: Los Lonely Boys for Heaven; Best Country & Western Performance: Tim McGraw for Live Like You Were Dying; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Prince for Call My Name; Best Rock Performance: Bruce Springsteen for Code of Silence; Best Instrumental Performance: Ben Harper for 11th Commandment; Best Rap Performance: Jay-Z for 99 Problems; Best New Artist: Maroon 5. The ceremonies are held at Staples Center in Los Angeles, California. The host is Queen Latifah.

2010–A bomb explodes in Pune, Maharashtra, India, killing 17 people and injuring 60 others.

2011–For the first time in more than 100 years, the Umatilla, an American Indian tribe, are able to hunt and harvest a bison just outside Yellowstone National Park, restoring a centuries-old tradition guaranteed by a treaty signed in 1855.

2011–The 53rd Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Lady Antebellum for Need You Now; Album of the Year: Arcade Fire for The Suburbs; Song of the Year: Dave Haywood, Josh Kear, Charles Kelley, and Hillary Scott (songwriters) for Need You Now; Best Vocal Performance, Male: Bruno Mars for Just the Way You Are; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Lady Gaga for Bad Romance; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: Train for Hey, Soul Sister; Best Country & Western Performance: Miranda Lambert for The House That Built Me; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Usher for There Goes My Baby; Best Rock Performance: Paul McCartney for Helter Skelter; Best Instrumental Performance: Jeff Beck for Nessun Dorma; Best Rap Performance: Eminem for Not Afraid; Best New Artist: Esperanza Spalding. The ceremonies are held at Staples Center in Los Angeles, California. There is no host.

2012–The European Space Agency (ESA) conducts the first launch of the European Vega rocket from Europe's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana.

2013–A plane crash kills five people and injures nine others in Donetsk, Ukraine.

2014–Actor, Ralph Waite, dies of age-related illnesses in Palm Desert, California, at age 86. He is best known for the role of patriarch John Walton, on the TV series The Waltons. He appeared in the films Cool Hand Luke, Five Easy Pieces, The Magnificent Seven Ride, The Stone Killer, and The Bodyguard.

2015–Pianist and composer, John McCabe, dies after a long illness in England, at age 74. He created works in many different forms, including symphonies, ballets, and solo works for the piano.

2016–U.S. Supreme Court Justice, Antonin Scalia, dies in his sleep of natural causes at Cibolo Creek Ranch near Marfa, Texas, at age 79. Appointed to the Court by President Ronald Reagan in 1986, Scalia was described as the intellectual anchor for the originalist and textualist position in the Court's conservative wing.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Pope Alexander VII; Henri III of France; the Marquis de Sade; Jesse James; "American Gothic" by Grant Wood; Tennessee Ernie Ford; Chuck Yeager; Kim Novak; Oliver Reed; Peter Tork; Stockard Channing; Rock You Sinners poster; Led Zeppelin; Dorothy Hamill; David Janssen; Waylon Jennings; bison at Yellowstone National Park; and Ralph Waite.

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