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1934–Mod fashion designer and icon, Mary Quant, is born in Kent, England. She will be instrumental in developing British pop fashions in the “swinging sixties.” The designer of hot pants, she is also credited by some as having introduced the mini skirt. Quant's promotion of fun fashions was instrumental in creating a youth fashion movement. Fashion journalist, Ernestine Carter, wrote: "It is given to a fortunate few to be born at the right time, in the right place, with the right talents. In recent fashion there are three: Chanel, Dior, and Mary Quant.”

BC 660–This is thought to be the day that Japan was founded by Emperor Jimmu.

55–Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus, heir to the Roman Emperorship, dies under mysterious circumstances (possibly poisoning) in Rome, Italy, at age 13. This clears the way for Nero to become Emperor.

244–Roman Emperor, Gordian III, is murdered by mutinous soldiers in Zaitha (Mesopotamia), at age 19. A mound is raised at Carchemish in his memory.

641–Byzantine Emperor, Heraclius, dies in in Constantinople, at age 65.

731–Pope Gregory II dies in Rome, Exarchate of Ravenna.

752–Benjamin Franklin helps to establish the Pennsylvania Hospital, the first hospital in America.

806–Emperor Shunzong of Tang dies at age 45. Later historians suspected that he was murdered by the eunuchs who arranged for Emperor Xianzong's succession.

824–Pope Paschal I dies in Rome, Papal States.

1177–John de Courcy's army defeats the native Dunleavey Clan in Ulster. The English then establish themselves in Ulster.

1261–Otto III, Duke of Bavaria, is born in Burghausen, Germany. He was a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty, was the Duke of Lower Bavaria from 1290 to 1312, and the King of Hungary and Croatia between 1305 and 1307.

1466–Elizabeth of York is born at Westminster Palace, London, England. As the wife of Henry VII, she was the first Tudor queen.

1503–Elizabeth of York dies of a post partum infection at the Tower of London, London, England, at age 37. It was her birthday. As the wife of Henry VII, she was the first Tudor queen.

1534–Henry VIII of England is recognized as supreme head of the Church of England.

1535–Pope Gregory XIV is born Niccolò Sfondrati in Somma Lombardo, Duchy of Milan.

1626–Emperor Susenyos I of Ethiopia and Patriarch Afonso Mendes declare the primacy of the Roman See over the Ethiopian Church, and Catholicism to be the state religion of Ethiopia.

1650–French philosopher, René Descartes, dies of pneumonia in Stockholm, Sweden, at age 53. He is famous for his remark, “I think, therefore I am.”

1659–The assault on Copenhagen, Denmark, by Swedish forces is beaten back with heavy losses.

1776–Politician, Ioannis Kapodistrias, is born Giovanni Antonio Capodistria Conte Capo d'Istria in Corfu, Ionian Islands. He was the first Governor of Greece.

1778–More than 300 people come to call on Voltaire following his return to Paris, France, after 28 years in exile for satiric writing and impudent behavior.

1790–The Religious Society of Friends, also known as The Quakers, petitions the U.S. Congress for an end to slavery.

1794–The first session of the U.S. Senate is held. It is open to the public.

1808–Jesse Fell burns anthracite on an open grate as an experiment in heating homes with coal.

1809–Robert Fulton patents the steamboat.

1812–Massachusetts governor, Elbridge Gerry, is accused of "gerrymandering" for the first time.

1823–About 110 boys are killed during a stampede at the Convent of the Minori Osservanti in Valletta, Malta.

1826–University College London is founded under the name University of London.

1826–Swaminarayan writes the Shikshapatri, an important text within Swaminarayan Hinduism.

1828–Politician, DeWitt Clinton, dies suddenly in Albany, New York, at age 58. He was the sixth Governor of New York.

1840–Gaetano Donizetti's opera, La fille du régiment receives its first performance in Paris, France.

1843–Giuseppe Verdi's opera, I Lombardi alla prima crociata, receives its first performance in Milan, Italy.

1847–Inventor of more than 1,200 patented ideas, Thomas Alva Edison, is born in Milan, Ohio. His favorite invention was the phonograph, but he didn't see any use for it and put it away for 10 years. He also invented the means of showing motion pictures, the stock ticker, and the perfected incandescent light bulb, making its widespread use practical. Within three years of his work with the light bulb, he had invented the generating, switching, and transmitting devices necessary to use it on a large scale, and was operating the world's first power station.

1848–Romantic landscape painter, Thomas Cole, dies in Catskill, New York, at age 47. The fourth highest peak in the Catskills is named Thomas Cole Mountain in his honor. He was regarded as the founder of the Hudson River School, an American art movement that flourished in the mid-19th century.

1852–The first British public toilet for women opens on Bedford Street in London, England.

1855–Kassa Hailu is crowned Tewodros II, Emperor of Ethiopia, by Abuna Salama III in a ceremony at the church of Derasge Maryam.

1856–The Kingdom of Awadh is annexed by the British East India Company, and Wajid Ali Shah, the King of Awadh, is imprisoned and later exiled to Calcutta.

1858–A 14-year-old girl named Bernadette sees an apparition of the Virgin Mary for the first time in Lourdes, France.

1861–The United States House of Representatives unanimously passes a resolution guaranteeing noninterference with slavery in any state.

1872–Edward Johnston, British craftsman and calligrapher, is born. He is known as "the father of modern calligraphy."

1873–King Amadeo I of Spain abdicates.

1878–The first weekly weather report is published in the U.K.

1889–The Meiji Constitution of Japan is adopted and the first National Diet convenes in 1890.

1896–Oscar Wilde’s Salomé premieres in Paris, France. Wilde wrote the play in French.

1898–Physicist, Leo Szilard, is born in Budapest, Hungary. In 1939, a few years after coming to America, knowing that German scientists had discovered nuclear fission, he drafted the famous letter that Albert Einstein sent to President Roosevelt advocating the development of an atomic bomb. Three years later, in the Manhattan Project, he and Enrico Fermi oversaw the first nuclear chain reaction. "We turned the switch and saw the flashes," he wrote later. "That night there was no doubt in my mind that the world was headed for grief." In 1961, he published a book of satirical fantasies on the misuse of science called The Voice of the Dolphin, and the following year he founded the Council for a Livable World, a lobbying group for arms control.

1901–Milan I of Serbia dies unexpectedly in Vienna, Austria-Hungary, at age 46.

1903–Anton Bruckner's 9th Symphony is performed for the first time in Vienna, Austria.

1906–Pope Pius X publishes the encyclical Vehementer Nos.

1908–Screenwriter, Philip Dunne, is born in New York, New York. He wrote 36 films and directed 10 others. He was one of the founders of the Screen Writers Guild. His films include The Count of Monte Cristo, The Last of the Mohicans, Stanley and Livingstone, Johnny Apollo, How Green Was My Valley, The Ghost and Mrs. Muir, Pinky, The Robe, Hilda Crane, Ten North Frederick, Blue Denim, Wild in the Country, and The Agony and the Ecstasy.

1909–Max Baer, American Heavyweight Boxing Champion (1934-1935), is born in Omaha, Nebraska. His son is actor, Max Baer, Jr.

1909–Screenwriter-director-producer, Joseph L. Mankiewicz, is born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. Mankiewicz had a long Hollywood career, writing 48 screenplays. He twice won the Academy Award for both Best Director (for Letter to Three Wives in 1949) and Best Writing-Screenplay (for All About Eve in 1950). Mankiewicz’s films include The Ghost and Mrs. Muir, No Way Out, Guys and Dolls, Suddenly, Last Summer, Cleopatra, and Sleuth. His brother, Herman J. Mankiewicz was also a screenwriter, winning an Oscar for co-writing Citizen Kane in 1941. His great-nephew is radio and television personality, Ben Mankiewicz, who is a host on Turner Classic Movies (TCM).

1911–Austrian banker, Albert von Rothschild, dies in Vienna, Austria-Hungary, at age 66.

1916–Emma Goldman is arrested for lecturing on birth control.

1917–Novelist, Sidney Sheldon, is born Sidney Schechtel in Chicago, Illinois. His TV works spanned a 20-year period during which he created The Patty Duke Show, I Dream of Jeannie, and Hart to Hart. His novels include The Other Side of Midnight, Rage of Angels, and Master of the Game. His films include The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer, Annie Get Your Gun, Billy Rose’s Jumbo, and Easter Parade.

1919–Friedrich Ebert is elected President of Germany.

1919–Actress, Eva Gabor, is born in Budapest, Hungary. She is best known for the role of Lisa Douglas on the TV sitcom Green Acres. She is the younger sister of Zsa Zsa Gabor.

1920–Farouk I, the last King of Egypt (1936-1952), is born in Cairo.

1921–Politician, Lloyd (Millard) Bentsen, is born in Mission, Texas. He was a four-term U.S. Senator (1971-1993) from Texas, and the Democratic Party nominee for vice president in 1988, on the Michael Dukakis ticket. He also served in the House of Representatives from 1948 to 1955.

1925–Actress, Kim Stanley, is born Patricia Reid in Tularosa, New Mexico. During the 1950s, Stanley was a prolific performer in television, and later moved on to film. She appeared in the films The Goddess, To Kill a Mockingbird, Seance on a Wet Afternoon, Frances, and The Right Stuff.

1926–Chef of nouvelle cuisine, Paul Bocuse, is born in Collonges-au-Mont-d'Or, France. Trained at the famous La Pyramide restaurant in Lyon, Bocuse was famous for the quality of his restaurants, and was one of the chefs who prepared meals for the maiden flight of the Concorde in 1969. He was named “Chef of the Century” by the Culinary Institute of America.

1926–Actor, Leslie (William) Nielsen, is born in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Nielsen appeared in more than 100 films and 150 television programs over the span of his career. He was seen on the TV shows Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Route 66, The Fugitive, Peyton Place, Bonanza, The Man from U.N.C.L.E., The Streets of San Francisco, Kojak, and Police Squad! He appeared in the films Forbidden Planet, The Opposite Sex, Tammy and the Bachelor, Harlow, The Poseidon Adventure, Airplane!, Nuts, and The Naked Gun: From the Files of Police Squad!

1928–The II Winter Olympic Games open in St. Moritz, Switzerland.

1928–Actor, Conrad Janis, is born in New York, New York. He was a popular actor in both television and film and is best known for the role of Mindy’s father in the hit sitcom Mork & Mindy. His films include Let’s Rock, Airport 1975, The Happy Hooker, The Buddy Holly Story, Mr. Saturday Night, and The Cable Guy.

1929–The independence and sovereignty of Vatican City is recognized by Italy, with the signing of the Lateran Treaty.

1934–Actress, Tina Louise, is born Tina Blacker in New York, New York. She is best known for the role of the movie star, Ginger Grant, on the TV sitcom Gilligan's Island. She appeared in the films God’s Little Acre, For Those Who Think Young, and The Stepford Wives.

1934–Manuel Noriega is born Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno in Panama City, Republic of Panama. He was a Panamanian politician and military officer. He was military dictator of Panama from 1983 to 1989, when he was removed from power by the United States during the invasion of Panama. In 1988, Noriega was indicted by the United States on drug trafficking charges in Miami, Florida. On September 16, 1992, he was sentenced to 40 years in prison, which was later reduced to 30 years.

1934–Mod fashion designer, (Barbara) Mary Quant, is born in Blackheath, London, England. She was instrumental in developing British pop fashions in the “swinging sixties.” The designer of hot pants, she is also credited by some as having introduced the mini skirt. Quant's promotion of fun fashions was infuential in creating a youth fashion movement. Fashion journalist, Ernestine Carter, wrote: "It is given to a fortunate few to be born at the right time, in the right place, with the right talents. In recent fashion there are three: Chanel, Dior, and Mary Quant.”

1934–Racecar driver, John Surtees, is born in Tatsfield, Surrey, England. He was a Grand Prix motorcycle road racer and Formula One driver. He was a four-time 500cc motorcycle World Champion, winning that title in 1956, 1958, 1959 and 1960. He won the Formula One World Champion in 1964, and remains the only person to have won World Championships on both two and four wheels.

1935–Rocker, Gene Vincent, is born Eugene Vincent Craddock in Norfolk, Virginia. His biggest hit was the “Top 10” song Be-Bop-a-Lula in 1956. The leather-jacketed, hard-rockabilly singer had an incalculable influence on British rockers like The Beatles and Ian Drury.

1936–Actor, Burt Reynolds, is born Burton Leon Reynolds, Jr. in Waycross, Georgia. A popular actor in TV and movies, Reynolds gained notoriety when he posed naked as a centerfold in the April 1972 issue of Cosmopolitan magazine. He appeared in the films Sam Whiskey, Deliverance, White Lightning, The Man Who Loved Cat Dancing, The Longest Yard, Smokey and the Bandit, The End, Starting Over, Best Friends, and Boogie Nights. He was involved with many actresses: Inger Stevens, Tammy Wynette, Lucie Arnaz, Adrienne Barbeau, Susan Clark, Sally Field, Lorna Luft, Tawny Little, and Dinah Shore. He was married to Judy Carne and Loni Anderson.

1937–A sit-down strike ends when General Motors recognizes the United Auto Workers.

1938–BBC Television produces the world's first science fiction program, an adaptation of a section of the Karel Capek play R.U.R., that coined the term "robot."

1938–Singer, Bobby Pickett, is born Robert George Pickett in Somerville, Massachusetts. He had the huge hit, Monster Mash, in the 1960s.

1939–A Lockheed P-38 Lightning flies from California to New York in 7 hours and 2 minutes.

1939–Pop lyricist, Gerry Goffin, is born Gerald Goffin in Queens, New York. While working at the Brill Building, he wrote scores of classics with his partner (and wife), Carole King, including Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow and (You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman. During his career, Goffin penned over 114 Billboard “Hot 100” hits, including eight chart-toppers, and 72 U.K. hits.

1940–NBC Radio broadcasts The Chamber Music Society of Lower Basin Street for the first time. The famous Blue network series included several distinguished alumni, among them Dinah Shore and Zero Mostel. The show combined satire, blues, and jazz, and was built around what were called the three “Bs” of music: Barrelhouse, Boogie Woogie, and Blues.

1941–Latin musician, Sergio (Santos) Mendes, is born in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He is best known for the music he made with Brazil ‘66, in the mid-1960s, which included the hits Mas Que Nada, The Look of Love, and Fool on the Hill.

1942–During World War II, the Battle of Bukit Timah is fought in Singapore.

1943–General Dwight D. Eisenhower is selected to command the allied armies in Europe.

1942–The first issue of the “Archie” comic book is published.

1945–The Yalta Conference between Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin, and Franklin Delano Roosevelt ends with agreement on the founding of the United Nations, as well as plans for the defeat of Germany.

1948–Yoshihito, Prince Katsura of Japan, is born in Tokyo, Japan.

1953–President Dwight D. Eisenhower refuses a clemency appeal for Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.

1953–The Soviet Union breaks off diplomatic relations with Israel.

1953–Politician, Jeb Bush, is born John Ellis Bush in Midland, Texas. He served as the 43rd Governor of Florida from 1999 to 2007. He is the son of former President George H.W. Bush and Barbara Bush, and the younger brother of former President George W. Bush.

1954–The 6th Annual Primetime Emmy Awards announces its winners. Best Dramatic Program: The United States Steel Hour; Best Situation Comedy: I Love Lucy; Best Variety Program: Omnibus; Best Mystery, Action or Adventure Program: Dragnet; Best Audience Participation, Quiz or Panel Program: What's My Line? and This Is Your Life (tie); Best Children's Program: Kukla, Fran and Ollie; Best New Program: Make Room for Daddy and The United States Steel Hour (tie); Best Actor: Donald O'Connor; Best Actress: Eve Arden; Most Outstanding Personality: Edward R. Murrow. The ceremonies are held at the Hollywood Palladium in Hollywood, California. The host is Ed Sullivan.

1959–The Federation of Arab Emirates of the South, which will later become South Yemen, is created as a protectorate of the United Kingdom.

1960–Host, Jack Paar, walks off NBC’s The Tonight Show. The previous night, Paar had told a joke during his monologue, and although he didn’t say “toilets,” but instead, “water closets,” it offended the NBC censors, who cut the joke (a total of four minutes) out of the show. Paar was incensed when he found out, so on this night he complained about the NBC censors, said “good night” and left.

1961–Patrice Lumumba, first Premier of the Congo, is murdered at age 34.

1962–Rock singer, Sheryl (Suzanne) Crow, is born in Kennett, Missouri. Her music is flavored by pop, rock, folk, country, and blues. She has sold more than 17 million albums in the U.S. and over 50 million albums worldwide. Her hits include Leaving Las Vegas, All I Wanna Do, If It Makes You Happy, Everyday is a Winding Road, and Steve McQueen.

1963–Julia Child's TV show, The French Chef, makes its debut.

1963–The Beatles are at EMI Studios, in London, England. During 12 hours (585 minutes of studio time), in three separate sessions, The Beatles complete 10 songs for their first album. While at the time it was not unusual for groups to record an album in a single day, it was unusual for one of this quality to be produced, especially one with so many original songs. John Lennon was not well, suffering from a bad cold which affected his singing voice (adding a deeper, nasal quality that was never heard again on subsequent Beatles recordings), but liberal supplies of tea, milk, cigarettes, and Zubes "Soothing and Comforting" cough drops kept him going. The album, Please Please Me, was released on the Parlophone label on March 22, 1963, and it was the #1 LP in the U.K. for 30 weeks, until it was replaced at the top by With The Beatles. Released in the U.S. as Introducing The Beatles (only 12 songs) on the VeeJay label, the album was on the charts for 49 weeks and made it up to #2, held out of the #1 spot by Meet The Beatles.

1963–Poet-novelist, Sylvia Plath, dies of suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning in London, England, at age 30. Plath is credited with advancing the genre of confessional poetry and is best known for her two published collections, The Colossus and Other Poems and Ariel. In 1982, she won a posthumous Pulitzer Prize for The Collected Poems. She also wrote The Bell Jar, a semi-autobiographical novel, published shortly before her death.

1964–Greeks and Turks begin fighting in Limassol, Cyprus.

1964–The Beatles travel from New York City to Washington, D.C. by train, during a blizzard, for their first full concert performance in the United States: they perform “in the round” for 8,092 fans at the Washington Coliseum. The stage setting is definitely weird. The Beatles had to stop three times and turn Ringo Starr's drum kit around and reposition their microphones so that they faced a different part of the surrounding audience at each change. The concert was filmed and later transmitted as a closed-circuit broadcast to theaters in March.

1964–Politician, Sarah Palin, is born Sarah Louise Heath in Sandpoint, Idaho. She served as the ninth Governor of Alaska, from 2006 to 2009. She was the Republican Party nominee for Vice President in the 2008 Presidential election.

1965–Beatle Ringo Starr (Richard Starkey) marries Maureen Cox at Caxton Hall Register Office, London, England.

1967–Due to increasing public furor over The Monkees being a "manufactured" band, the group issues a statement claiming they will play their own instruments on all new releases. They do so on the 1967 LP Headquarters.

1968–Israeli-Jordanian border clashes heat up.

1968–The new 20,000 seat Madison Square Garden officially opens in New York. It is the fourth arena to be named Madison Square Garden. The showplace for sports and entertainment opened with a gala show hosted by Bob Hope and Bing Crosby.

1969–Actress, Jennifer (Joanna) Aniston, is born in Sherman Oaks, California. She is best known for the role of Rachel Green on the hit TV series Friends. She appeared in the films She’s the One, Bruce Almighty, Along Came Polly, Rumor Has It..., Friends with Money, The Break-Up, Marley & Me, and He's Just Not That into You. She was married to actor, Brad Pitt.

1970–Japan becomes the fourth country to put a satellite into orbit.

1970–John Lennon and the Plastic Ono Band tape a performance of Instant Karma! for the BBC-TV program Top of the Pops, to be broadcast the following evening. The Plastic Ono Band is comprised of Lennon (electric piano), Klaus Voormann (bass), Alan White (drums), Mal Evans (occasional tambourine), and Yoko Ono (blindfolded knitting and cardholding).

1971–Eighty-seven countries, including the Unites States, Great Britain, and the USSR, sign the “Seabed Treaty” outlawing nuclear weapons in international waters.

1972–David Bowie performs as “Ziggy Stardust" for the first time in Tollworth, England.

1973–The first of the American prisoners of war are released from Vietnam.

1974–Talk radio host, Alex Jones, is born Alexander Emerick Jones in Dallas, Texas. His syndicated news/talk show, The Alex Jones Show, is based in Austin, Texas. Jones describes himself as a libertarian and a paleoconservative, while the Southern Poverty Law Center describes Jones as "the most prolific conspiracy theorist in contemporary America."

1975–Margaret Thatcher becomes the first woman leader of a British political party, elected leader of the Conservatives.

1976–Actor, Lee J. Cobb, dies of a heart attack in Woodland Hills, California, at age 64. He appeared in the films Golden Boy, The Song of Bernadette, Anna and the King of Siam, Call Northside 777, On the Waterfront, The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit, 12 Angry Men, The Three Faces of Eve, The Brothers Karamazov, Exodus, and How the West Was Won.

1977–Politician, Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed, dies suddenly after collapsing in his office in New Delhi, Delhi, India, at age 71. He was the fifth President of India.

1977–Academic and politician, Louis Beel, dies in Utrecht, Netherlands, at age 74. He was Prime Minister of the Netherlands.

1978–China lifts a ban on works by Aristotle, William Shakespeare, and Charles Dickens.

1979–The Iranian Revolution establishes an Islamic theocracy under the leadership of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

1979–ABC-TV airs the TV-movie, Elvis, starring Kurt Russell as The King of Rock and Roll.

1979–Pop singer, Brandy, is born Brandy Rayana Norwood in McComb, Mississippi. She is known for her starring role on the TV series, Moesha. Her discography, as a solo artist, includes six studio albums, 27 singles, 28 album appearances, and 18 soundtracks. Norwood has sold over 30 million records worldwide.

1980–Actor, Matthew Lawrence, is born in Abington Township, Pennsylvania. He starred in the TV series Boy Meets World from 1997 to 2000. He has appeared in the films Planes, Trains and Automobiles, Mrs. Doubtfire, The Hot Chick, and Monster Night.

1981–One hundred thousand gallons of radioactive coolant leak into the containment building of the TVA Sequoyah 1 nuclear plant in Tennessee, contaminating eight workers.

1982–Tap-dancing actress, Eleanor Powell, dies of cancer in Beverly Hills, California, at age 69. She was the only female dancer who could match the talent of Fred Astaire. She appeared in the films Born to Dance, Rosalie, Lady Be Good, and Ship Ahoy.

1982–Actor, Takashi Shimura, dies of emphysema in Tokyo, Japan, at age 76. He appeared in the films Rashomon, Seven Samurai, Godzilla, Yojimbo, and Mothra.

1985–Film producer and director, Henry Hathaway, dies of a heart attack in Hollywood, California, at age 86. His films include The Last Round-up, The Lives of a Bengal Lancer, Johnny Apollo, Brigham Young, Wing and a Prayer, 13 Rue Madeleine, Call Northside 777, Fourteen Hours, Rawhide, Niagara, Woman Obsessed, North to Alaska, How the West Was Won, The Sons of Katie Elder, Nevada Smith, 5 Card Stud, and True Grit.

1986–Writer, Frank Herbert, dies of pancreatic cancer in Madison, Wisconsin, at age 65. He wrote the award-winning science fiction book, Dune, which had five sequels. Dune is, in fact, the best-selling science fiction novel of all time.

1987–The U.S. conducts a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1988–Anthony M. Kennedy is appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court.

1988–A stereo 35mm film print of the film Imagine John Lennon receives its premiere screening to Warner Brothers executives in Los Angeles, California. They insist that at 122 minutes the film is too long and order it to be recut. (When released later in the year, the film’s running time will be reduced to 100 minutes.)

1990–Nelson Mandela, who had been a political prisoner for 27 years, is freed from Victor Verster Prison outside Cape Town, South Africa.

1990–Buster Douglas, a 42:1 underdog, knocks out Mike Tyson in 10 rounds, winning boxing's World Heavyweight Championship in Tokyo, Japan.

1993–Janet Reno is the first woman to hold the position of U.S. Attorney General.

1994–The use of genetically engineered growth hormone for cows goes into practice.

1994–An historic first Beatles reunion session takes place at Paul McCartney’s Mill Studios in Sussex, England. The Mill is a converted windmill on a hill, overlooking English farmland and the English Channel. They begin work on the single Free as a Bird. The term, “The Threetles,” soon becomes popular when referring to the three surviving Beatles.

1994–Actor, Sorrell Brooke, dies of cancer in Sherman Oaks, California, at age 64. He is best known for the role of the corrupt politician, Jefferson Davis "Boss" Hogg, in the TV show The Dukes of Hazzard. He appeared in the films Fail-Safe, Black Like Me, Up the Down Staircase, Slaughterhouse Five, What’s Up, Doc?, and The Cat from Outer Space.

1994–Actor, William Conrad, dies of a heart attack in Los Angeles, California, at age 73. He was best known for his starring role in the TV series, Cannon.

1997–The Space Shuttle, Discovery, is launched on a mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope.

1997–Character actor, Don Porter, dies in Beverly Hills, California, at age 84. He is best known for the role of Russell Lawrence, the widowed father of 15-year-old Frances Lawrence, in the 1965 TV series Gidget. He appeared in the films The Racket, Desk Set, Bachelor in Paradise, Youngblood Hawke, The Candidate, and Mame.

1999–Pluto crosses Neptune's orbit, ending a nearly 20-year period when it was closer to the Sun than the “gas giant.” Pluto is not expected to interact with Neptune's orbit for another 228 years.

1999–On the eve of Ringo Starr’s All-Starr Band 10th anniversary tour, he takes part in an AOL (America On Line) chat with fans around the world.

1999–Author and academic, Leonard J. Arrington, dies of heart failure in Salt Lake City, Utah, at age 81. He founded the Mormon History Association.

1999–Jazz pianist, Jaki Byard, dies from a gunshot wound to the head in Queens, New York, at age 76. His death was declared to be a homicide, but the circumstances surrounding it have not been determined, and the case remains unsolved. During his 60-year career, Byard worked with Maynard Ferguson, Eric Dolphy, Charles Mingus, and Roland Kirk.

2000–Film director, Roger Vadim, dies of cancer in Paris, France, at age 72. His films include And God Created Woman, Blood and Roses, Spirits of the Dead, Barbarella, and Pretty Maids All in a Row.

2001–The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals rules that the MP3-swapping website, Napster, must stop its users from trading tunes without the permission of their copyright owners.

2001–A Dutch programmer launches the “Anna Kournikova” virus, infecting millions of emails via a trick photo of the tennis star.

2004–North Dakota Governor, John Hoeven, declares a snow emergency as winds gusting over 70 mph along with heavy snow produces low visibilities and drifts up to 20 feet in northwestern North Dakota.

2006–U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney accidentally shoots Harry Whittington in the face while the two are hunting together.

2006–Author, Peter Benchley, dies of pulmonary fibrosis in Princeton, New Jersey, at age 65. He is best known for his best-selling novel, Jaws, which was made into a blockbuster film by director Steven Spielberg in 1976.

2007–The 49th Annual Grammy Awards announces its winners. Record of the Year: Dixie Chicks for Not Ready to Make Nice; Album of the Year: Dixie Chicks for Taking the Long Way; Song of the Year: Martie Maguire, Natalie Maines, Emily Robison, and Dan Wilson (songwriters) for Not Ready to Make Nice; Best Vocal Performance, Male: John Legend for Waiting on the World to Change; Best Vocal Performance, Female: Christina Aguilera for Ain’t No Other Man; Best Performance by a Vocal Group: The Black Eyed Peas for My Humps; Best Country & Western Performance: Carrie Underwood for Jesus, Take the Wheel; Best Rhythm & Blues Performance: Mary J. Blige for Be Without You; Best Rock Performance: Bob Dylan for Someday Baby; Best Instrumental Performance: George Benson and Al Jarreau for Mornin’; Best Rap Performance: T.I. for What You Know; Best New Artist: Carrie Underwood. The ceremonies are held at Staples Center in Los Angeles, California. There is no host.

2008–Rebel East Timorese soldiers seriously wound President José Ramos-Horta. Rebel leader Alfredo Reinado is killed in the attack.

2008–Namdaemun, a 550-year-old gate in South Korea, is toppled by fire.

2010–Fashion designer, Alexander McQueen, dies from suicide by hanging in Mayfair, London, England, at age 40. He is known for having worked as chief designer at Givenchy from 1996 to 2001, and for founding his own Alexander McQueen label.

2011–After 18 days of protests, the Egyptian Revolution culminates in the resignation of Hosni Mubarak and the transfer of power to the Supreme Military Council.

2012–The Israeli Air Force conducts four air strikes in the Gaza Strip.

2012–Singer, Whitney Houston, dies from an accidental bathtub drowning at the Beverly Hilton Hotel in Beverly Hills, California, at age 48. In 2009, the Guinness World Records cited her as the most awarded female act of all time. Her hits include Saving All My Love for You, I Will Always Love You, and I Have Nothing. She appeared in the films The Bodyguard, Waiting to Exhale, and The Preacher’s Wife.

2013–Pope Benedict XVI announces his resignation. He is the first pope to resign since 1415.

2013–Rick Huxley, of The Dave Clark Five, dies from emphysema in Old Harlow, Essex, England, at age 72.

2014–A military transport plane crashes in a mountainous area of Oum El Bouaghi Province in eastern Algeria, killing 77 people.

2014–Seán Potts, of The Chieftains, dies at age 83. He played with the band until 1979, when the pressures of the music scene (and touring) prompted him to leave the music business for an easier life.

2015–A university student is murdered as she resists an attempted rape in Turkey, sparking nationwide protests and public outcry against harassment and violence against women.

2016–A man shoots six people dead at an education center in Jizan Province, Saudi Arabia.

2016–At least 52 inmates are killed in a riot and fire at Topo Chico prison in Mexico.

2017–A 29-year-old woman plunges 34 feet to her death off an escalator inside the famed World Trade Center Oculus. while reaching for a hat that was dropped by her twin sister.

2017–Over 70,000 people are evacuated from Thessaloniki, Greece, as authorities attempt to defuse a World War II-era unexploded ordnance, which was only discovered the week before.

2017–North Korea test fires a ballistic missile across the Sea of Japan.

2018–Disney announces that it is changing the admission price for its U.S. theme parks, raising the cost of some single-day tickets by almost 9%. Peak one-day tickets for a single theme park at the Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, California, will increase to $135 from $124. Value and regular one-day tickets will be $97 and $117, compared to $97 and $110 last year. One-day prices to the Magic Kingdom at Walt Disney World in Orlando, Florida, will rise 2% to 4%, with tickets ranging between $109 and $129.

2018–Saratov Airlines Flight 703 crashes shortly after take-off near Moscow, Russia, killing all 71 people on board.

2018–Singer, Vic Damone, dies in Miami Beach, Florida, at age 89. His hits include You're Breaking My Heart, My Heart Cries for You, and On the Street Where You Live.

2018–Tom Rapp, of Pearls Before Swine, dies of cancer in a hospice in Melbourne, Florida, at age 70.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Emperor Jimmu of Japan; René Descartes; Thomas Alva Edison; a sample of calligraphy; Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard; Joseph L. Mankiewicz; Eva Gabor; Conrad Janis; Mary Quant; Burt Reynolds; the first issue of the “Archie” comic book; I Love Lucy title; Sylvia Plath; The Beatles concert at Washington Coliseum 1964; The Monkees' Headquarters album; John Lennon performing Instant Karma! on Top of the Pops; Kurt Russell from the movie Elvis; Dune book cover; Nelson Mandela on the cover of the Voice; Don Porter with Sally Field; Roger Vadim; Alexander McQueen; Whitney Houston; and the Disney logo.

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