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1905–Writer and philosopher, Ayn Rand, is born Alisa Zinov'yevna Rosenbaum in Saint Petersburg, Russia. She decided on a career as a writer at the age of nine. In 1925, Rand obtained a visa to visit relatives in America, and she went off to Hollywood to pursue a career. She managed to get a job as an extra in films, and then as a script reader. She sold a few screenplays and a stage play, but in 1936, her autobiographical novel, We the Living, was published to mediocre reviews. Shortly thereafter, she began writing The Fountainhead, published in 1943, which established her as one of the most popular and controversial authors of the 20th century. Rand's last major work of fiction was Atlas Shrugged in 1957.

450–Justin I is born Flavius Iustinus in Bederiana, near Scupi (present-day Skopje, Macedonia). He rose through the ranks of the army and ultimately became its Emperor, in spite of the fact he was illiterate and nearly 70 years old at the time of his accession. His reign is significant for the founding of the Justinian Dynasty.

506–Alaric II, eighth king of the Visigoths, promulgates the Breviary of Alaric (Breviarium Alaricianum or Lex Romana Visigothorum), a collection of "Roman law."

880–King Louis III is defeated by the Norse Great Heathen Army at Lüneburg Heath in Saxony.

962–Pope John XII crowns Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, the first in nearly 40 years.

1032–Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, becomes King of Burgundy.

1141–In the Battle of Lincoln, Stephen, King of England, is defeated and captured by the allies of Empress Matilda.

1207–Terra Mariana (comprising present-day Estonia and Latvia) is established.

1208–James I of Aragon is born in Montpellier, France.

1218–Konstantin of Rostov dies in Russia, at age 32.

1250–Eric XI of Sweden dies at age 34.

1294–Louis II, Duke of Bavaria, dies in Heidelberg, Germany, at age 64.

1435–Joanna II of Naples dies in Naples, Kingdom of Naples, at age 61. As a mere formality, she used the title of Queen of Jerusalem, Sicily, and Hungary. With her death, the entire Capetian House of Anjou becomes extinct.

1438–Nine leaders of the Transylvanian peasant revolt are executed in Torda, Romania.

1455–John, King of Denmark, is born at Aalborghus Castle, Aalborg, Denmark.

1461–The Battle of Mortimer's Cross is fought in Herefordshire, England.

1512–Caribbean tribal chief, Hatuey, dies by being burned at the stake in Yara, Granma Province, Cuba. He was a Taíno Cacique from the island of Ayiti (present-day Hispaniola). He attained legendary status for leading a group of natives in a fight against the invading Spaniards, becoming the first fighter against colonialism in the New World. He is celebrated as "Cuba's First National Hero."Caribbean tribal chief

1536–Buenos Aires, Argentina, is founded by Pedro de Mendoza of Spain. Buenos Aires was founded twice. A settlement at the present day site was established briefly in 1536, but attacks in 1529, by local indigenous tribes, forced the settlers to move to Asunción, Paraguay. By 1541, the original site had been burned and abandoned.

1585–Hamnet Shakespeare is born in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England. He was the only son of William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway, and the fraternal twin of Judith Shakespeare.

1650–Pope Benedict XIII is born Pietro Francesco Orsini in Gravina in Puglia, Kingdom of Naples.

1653–New Amsterdam becomes a city, and later it will become New York, New York, the most influential city in the world.

1660–Gaston, Duke of Orléans, dies at Château de Blois in France, at age 51.

1709–British sailor, Alexander Selkirk, is rescued after being marooned on a desert island for five years. His experience inspires his book Robinson Crusoe.

1754–Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Prime Minister of France, is born in Paris, France.

1769–Pope Clement XIII dies of an apoplexy in Rome, Papal State, at age 79.

1795–The French government offers a prize of 12,000 francs for a method of preserving food for transport to the French Army. It was won by Nicholas Appert, who invented a successful method of canning food.

1820–Inventor, Jean Etienne Bore, dies in New Orleans, Louisiana, at age 79. He is thought to be the founder of the sugar industry in Louisiana, and the inventor of the sugar granulating process.

1826–Author, Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, dies in Paris, France, at age 71. A French lawyer and politician, he wrote The Physiology of Taste. Brillat-Savarin is often considered the father of the low-carbohydrate diet. He was perhaps the greatest food critic in history and is remembered for the quote, "Tell me what you eat and I will tell you what you are."

1848–The first shipload of Chinese immigrants arrives in San Francisco, California.

1848–In the Mexican-American War, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed.

1850–Brigham Young declares war on the Timpanogos (a tribe of Native Americans) in the Battle at Fort Utah.

1856–Railway magnate, Frederick William Vanderbilt, is born in New Dorp, Staten Island, New York. He was a member of the American plutocratic Vanderbilt family. He was a director of the New York Central Railroad for 61 years, and also a director of the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad and of the Chicago and North Western Railroad.

1861–Philanthropist, Solomon R. Guggenheim, is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He founded the Guggenheim Museum in New York. Born into a wealthy mining family, Guggenheim founded the Yukon Gold Company in Alaska, among other business interests. He began collecting art in the 1890s, and after World War I, he retired from his business to pursue full-time art collecting. In 1943, Frank Lloyd Wright was commissioned to design a building to house Guggenheim’s art. Wright's masterpiece of architecture opened to the public on October 21, 1959, six months after his own death.

1868–Pro-Imperial forces capture Osaka Castle from the Tokugawa shogunate and burn it to the ground.

1870–”The Cardiff Giant,” a supposed petrified human, is proven to be gypsum.

1870–Writer, Mark Twain, marries Olivia Langdon in Elmira, New York.

1874–Lunalilo of Hawaii dies of tuberculosis at his home Haimoeipo in Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii. He was the most liberal king in Hawaiian history, but was its shortest-reigning monarch: he was King for one year and 25 days.

1876–The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs is formed in New York. It starts with teams in Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Hartford, Louisville, New York, Philadelphia, and St. Louis.

1880–The first electric streetlight is installed in Wabash, Indiana.

1882–The Knights of Columbus are founded in New Haven, Connecticut.

1882–Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark is born in Athens, Greece.

1882–Writer, James Joyce, is born James Augustine Aloysius Joyce in Rathgar, Ireland, the son of a tax collector. He graduated from University College and left Ireland with Nora Barnacle for Paris, France, when he was 21. His small body of work would prove to have a tremendous influence on the evolution of the modern novel. His first published work was a volume of 36 poems called Chamber Music, but he is best known for his prose works. In 1914, his collection of short stories, Dubliners, was published. Each of its 15 stories depicts some aspect of life in the city, with which he had a love-hate relationship. Joyce continued to write about Dublin for the rest of his life, even though he lived abroad for most of it. In 1916, he published A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, a semi-autobiographical coming-of-age novel. This was followed by Ulysses, published in Paris, because it was banned in England. Joyce then began his next book, which would take him 17 years to complete, but Finnegan's Wake was finally published in 1939.

1883–Author and screenwriter, Johnston McCulley, is born in Ottawa, Illinois. He created the character "Zorro," which was first serialized in the story "The Curse of Capistrano" in the pulp magazine All-Story Weekly in 1919. Many of his novels and stories were written under the pseudonyms Harrington Strong, Raley Brien, George Drayne, Monica Morton, Rowena Raley, Frederic Phelps, Walter Pierson, and John Mack Stone, among others.

1887–The first Groundhog Day is observed in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania.

1892–The bottle cap with a cork seal is patented by William Painter.

1897–Alfred L. Cralle, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, patents the ice cream scooper.

1897–Entrepreneur, Howard (Deering) Johnson, is born in Boston, Massachusetts. He built Howard Johnson Motor Lodges and Restaurants all across America.

1899–The Australian Premiers' Conference, held in Melbourne, decides to locate Australia's capital city, Canberra, between Sydney and Melbourne.

1900–Astrologer, Carroll Righter, is born in Salem, New Jersey. He was known as the "astrologer to the stars." Among those who sought his advice were Arlene Dahl, Rhonda Fleming, Jane Withers, Joan Fontaine, Grace Kelly, and Ronald and Nancy Reagan. He wrote a syndicated daily advice column for 166 newspapers around the world.

1901–The funeral is held for Queen Victoria at St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, in London, England. After two days of lying-in-state, she was interred beside Prince Albert in Frogmore Mausoleum at Windsor Great Park.

1905–Writer and philosopher, Ayn Rand, is born Alisa Zinov'yevna Rosenbaum in Saint Petersburg, Russia. She decided on a career as a writer at the age of nine. In 1925, Rand obtained a visa to visit relatives in America, and she went off to Hollywood to pursue a career. She managed to get a job as an extra in films, and then as a script reader. She sold a few screenplays and a stage play, but in 1936, her autobiographical novel, We the Living, was published to mediocre reviews. Shortly thereafter, she began writing The Fountainhead, published in 1943, which established her as one of the most popular and controversial authors of the 20th century. Rand's last major work of fiction was Atlas Shrugged in 1957.

1913–Grand Central Terminal is opened in New York City.

1913–The New York Giants sign Jim Thorpe.

1913–Inventor, Gustaf de Laval, dies in Stockholm, Sweden, at age 67. Among his inventions are the centrifugal cream separator and a vacuum milking machine.

1914–Charlie Chaplin's first film, Making a Living, premieres.

1915–Politician and diplomat, Abba Eban, first Israel Ambassador to the United Nations, is born in Cape Town, South Africa.

1920–Estonia declares its Independence from Russia.

1920–France occupies Memel.

1922–Ulysses, by James Joyce, is published.

1923–Ethyl gasoline is first marketed in Dayton, Ohio.

1923–Actress, Bonita Granville, is born in New York, New York. She appeared in the films Anne of Green Gables, Ah, Wilderness!, Merrily We Live, and Now, Voyager.

1923–Journalist and gossip columnist, Liz Smith, is born Mary Elizabeth Smith, in Fort Worth, Texas. During her career, she wrote columns for The New York Daily News, The Washington Post, and Cosmopolitan. She worked exclusively on the Fox Broadcasting Company with Roger Ailes. From 1995 through 2005, Smith worked with Newsday. She was once reportedly the highest-paid print journalist in the United States.

1925–Dog sleds reach Nome, Alaska, with diphtheria serum, inspiring the Iditarod race.

1925–Actress, Elaine Stritch, is born in Detroit, Michigan. She was best known for her work on Broadway, which included Pal Joey, On Your Toes, Bus Stop, Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, and Mame. She appeared in the films A Farewell to Arms, The Perfect Furlough, Who Killed Teddy Bear?, September, Cocoon: The Return, and Autumn in New York. She was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame in 1995.

1927–The Ziegfeld Theater opens at Sixth Avenue and 54th Street in New York.

1927–Jazz saxophonist, Stan Getz, is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Coming to prominence in the late 1940s with Woody Herman's big band, Getz is considered one of the all-time great tenor saxophonists. Getz went on to perform in bebop, cool jazz, and third stream, but is perhaps best known for popularizing bossa nova 1964, through the worldwide hit single The Girl from Ipanema.

1932–Bandleader, Arthur Lyman, is born in Kauai, Hawaii. He was an American jazz vibraphone and marimba player. His group popularized a style of faux-Polynesian music during the 1950s and 1960s, which later became known as exotica. His albums include Taboo, Legend of Pele, Aphrodisia, and Puka Shells.

1932–Actor, Robert Mandan, is born in Clever, Missouri. He is best known for the role of Chester Tate on the satirical sitcom Soap.

1933–Two days after becoming Chancellor, Adolf Hitler dissolves the German Parliament.

1933–Working as maids, the sisters Christine and Léa Papin murder their employer's wife and daughter in Le Mans, France. The case is the subject of a number of French films and plays.

1934–The Export-Import Bank of the United States is incorporated.

1935–The polygraph machine, otherwise known as a “lie detector,” is used in court for the first time. Leonard Keeler conducts the experiment in Portage, Wisconsin.

1937–Politician, Eric Arturo Delvalle, is born Eric Arturo Delvalle Cohen-Henríquez in Panama City, Panama. He was President of Panama from September 28, 1985 to February 26, 1988. In 1988, he attempted to remove Noriega as head of the armed forces, but was himself deposed by the Legislative Assembly, going into hiding, and eventually exile.

1937–Comedian, Tom Smothers, of The Smothers Brothers, is born Thomas Bolyn Smothers III in New York, New York. The duo is best known for their hit variety show The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, which debuted in 1967. In 1969, Smothers played guitar on John Lennon's recording of his single Give Peace a Chance at John and Yoko’s Bed-In for Peace. He is the owner of Remick Ridge Vineyards in Sonoma County, California.

1940–Frank Sinatra makes his national singing debut in Indianapolis, Indiana, with the Tommy Dorsey Orchestra.

1942–The Los Angeles Times urges security measures against Japanese-Americans.

1942–U.S. auto factories switch from commercial to war production.

1942–The Osvald Group is responsible for the first, active event of anti-Nazi resistance in Norway, protesting the inauguration of Vidkun Quisling.

1942–Barry Diller, founder of Fox Broadcasting Company, is born in San Francisco, California. Diller is responsible for what the media dubs "The Killer Dillers": people who were mentored by Diller and who later became big-time media executives in their own right. Examples include Michael Eisner (who was President and COO of Paramount Pictures while Diller was Chairman and CEO at the studio and went on to become Chairman and CEO of The Walt Disney Company), Dawn Steel (future head of Columbia Pictures and one of the first women to run a major movie studio, who worked under Diller at Paramount), and Jeffrey Katzenberg (head of PDI/DreamWorks Animation, principal of DreamWorks SKG, former head of Walt Disney Studios, and a head of production of Paramount under Diller). Diller was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame in 1994. He is married to fashion designer, Diane von Fürstenberg.

1942–Actor, Bo Hopkins, is born William Hopkins in Greenville, South Carolina. He appeared in the films The Wild Bunch, Monte Walsh, The Getaway, American Graffiti, White Lightning, Midnight Express, The Ballad of Little Joe, and U Turn.

1942–Graham (William) Nash, singer-songwriter with The Hollies and Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young, is born in Blackpool, Lancashire, England. Nash became an American citizen on August 14, 1978, and holds dual citizenship of the United Kingdom and United States. His most popular album as a single artist is Songs for Beginners.

1943–The Battle of Stalingrad comes to an end when Soviet troops accept the surrender of the last German troops in the city.

1944–Entrepreneur, Al Copeland, is born Alvin Charles Copeland in New Orleans, Louisiana. In 1972, he founded the Popeyes Chicken & Biscuits fast food chain in the New Orleans suburb of Arabi in St. Bernard Parish. Copeland began franchising his restaurant in 1976, opening the first one in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Approximately 500 outlets were added over the next 10 years, followed by 200 more during a period of slower expansion.

1947–Actress, Farrah Fawcett, is born Ferrah Leni Fawcett in Corpus Christi, Texas. She is best known for her co-starring role on the TV action series Charlie’s Angels. During that time, she was featured on an iconic poster that sold a record-breaking 20 million copies. She appeared in the films Logan’s Run, Somebody Killed Her Husband, Sunburn, Saturn 3, The Cannonball Run, Extremities, See You in the Morning, The Apostle, and Dr. T & the Women. She was married to actor, Lee Majors, and had a long term relationship with actor, Ryan O’Neal.

1949–Actor, Brent (Jay) Spiner, is born in Houston, Texas. He is best known for the role of the android Lieutenant Commander Data in the TV series Star Trek: The Next Generation and its four subsequent films. He appeared in the films Stardust Memories, Sunday in the Park with George, Miss Firecracker, Corrina Corinna, Independence Day, Phenomenon, I Am Sam, and The Aviator.

1953–Gemologist, Jerry Sisk, Jr., is born Gerald D. Sisk, Jr. in New York, New York. He co-founded Jewelry Television (JTV).

1954–Model, Christie Brinkley, is born Christie Lee Hudson in Monroe, Michigan. She spent 25 years as the face of Cover Girl (the longest running cosmetics contract of any model in history), and has appeared on over 500 magazine covers. She was married to singer, Billy Joel, who wrote the song, Uptown Girl, about her.

1955–Petula Clark's first major hit, Majorca, debuts on the U.K. records chart. Although the single is the first of a string of “Top 20” hits in England and Europe, it will be nearly 10 years before Clark gets a hit in the U.S.

1956–A record snow storm in New Mexico and west Texas produces 15 inches of snow at Roswell, and up to 33 inches in the Texas Panhandle.

1957–Actress, Elizabeth Taylor, marries her third husband, Mike Todd.

1959–It's the day before “the day the music died.” The Surf Ballroom in Clear Lake, Iowa, hosts a concert featuring Buddy Holly, The Big Bopper, and Ritchie Valens. All three performers will be killed in a plane crash the following morning. Holly sits in on drums for several of the acts. Carlo Mastrangelo, of The Belmonts, joins The Crickets to play drums during Holly's performance, as his drummer, Carl Bunch, is suffering from frostbite.

1959–Nine experienced ski hikers die under mysterious circumstances in the northern Ural Mountains in the Soviet Union.

1961–President John F. Kennedy announces that a pilot food stamp program will be developed.

1962–Eight of the nine known planets align for the first time in 400 years.

1964–Hasbro launches its G.I. Joe U.S. Army doll for boys.

1966–Pakistan suggests a six-point agenda with Kashmir, after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.

1966–A chart topper: My Love by Petula Clark.

1967–The American Basketball Association is formed.

1969–Yoko Ono is divorced from Anthony Cox in the Virgin Islands. Cox receives a divorce settlement of £6,700 pounds, and Yoko is given custody of their daughter, Kyoko.

1969–Stan Coveleski and Waite Hoyt are elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame.

1969–Actor, Boris Karloff, dies of pneumonia in Midhurst, Sussex, England, at age 81. He is best known for the role of the Frankenstein Monster in the films Frankenstein, Bride of Frankenstein, and Son of Frankenstein. He also appeared as Imhotep in The Mummy. His other film roles include The Man from Downing Street, The Infidel, Forbidden Cargo, Old Ironsides, Scarface, The Miracle Man, The Mask of Fu Manchu, The Raven, Black Friday, The Body Snatcher, The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, Lured, Voodoo Island, The Terror, Bikini Beach, and Die Monster Die!

1970–Look magazine uses the opening line from The Beatles song, A Day in the Life, to headline its look back at the 1960s.

1970–The 27th Annual Golden Globe Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Anne of the Thousand Days; Best Actor: John Wayne for True Grit; Best Actress: Geneviève Bujold for Anne of the Thousand Days; Best Director: Charles Jarrott for Anne of the Thousand Days; Best Musical: The Secret of Santa Vittoria.

1970–English mathematician and philosopher, Bertrand Russell, dies of influenza at his home Plas Penrhyn in Penrhyndeudraeth, Merionethshire, Wales, at age 97. In 1950, Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought."

1971–Idi Amin becomes ruler of Uganda, following a coup that ousts President Milton Obote.

1971–The international Ramsar Convention, for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, is signed in Ramsar, Mazandaran, Iran.

1971–Deli owner, Richard Hellmann, dies. He created Hellmann's Mayonnaise. Hellmann’s is known as Best Foods west of the Rockies in the U.S.

1972–The British Embassy in Dublin, Ireland, is destroyed in protest over “Bloody Sunday.”

1973–The rock music show, The Midnight Special, debuts on NBC-TV.

1977–Radio Shack officially begins creating the TRS-80 computer.

1977–Pop singer, Shakira, is born Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll in Barranquilla, Colombia. Shakira entered the English-language market in 2001, with her fifth album, Laundry Service. Its lead single, Whenever, Wherever, became the best-selling single of 2002. In 2012, she became one the four “coaches” on the TV singing competition show, The Voice.

1979–Sid Vicious, of the Sex Pistols, dies of a drug overdose in the West Village, New York, New York, at age 21.

1980–Reports surface on Abscam that FBI personnel were targeting 31 elected and public officials for bribes and political favors in a sting operation. Agents posed as Arab businessmen.

1981–Donald W. Douglas, U.S. aircraft builder, dies in Palm Springs, California, at age 88. He founded the Douglas Aircraft Company in 1921 (the company later merged into McDonnell Douglas Corporation).

1982–Intel introduces the 80286 computer processor.

1982–The government of Syria attacks the town of Hama.

1985–O.J. Simpson marries Nicole Brown.

1986–The Dalai Lama meets Pope John Paul II in India.

1987–After the 1986 People Power Revolution, the Philippines enacts a new constitution.

1988–The chain of Auntie Anne's pretzel shops is founded by Anne F. Beiler in Lancaster, Pennsylvania

1988–Clive Epstein, dies at age 51. He was the younger brother of Brian Epstein, manager of The Beatles.

1989–Satellite television service, Sky Television, is launched in Europe.

1990–F.W. de Klerk announces the unbanning of the African National Congress and promises to release Nelson Mandela from prison.

1992–The IRS settles a $16.7 million tax bill in favor of country singer, Willie Nelson, for $9 million.

1992–Radio and TV personality, Bert Parks, dies of lung cancer in La Jolla, California, at age 77. He was best known for hosting the annual Miss America telecast from 1955 to 1979.

1993–Frito Lay pays a court ordered settlement of $2,500,000 to singer, Tom Waits, for using his song, Step Right Up.

1993–Film director, François Reichenbach, dies in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, at age 71. His films include Jeu I, The Lovers of France, Decameron ‘69, The Indiscreet One, The Right of the Maddest, F for Fake, and Do You Hear the Dogs Barking?

1995–Actor, Donald Pleasance, dies of heart failure in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, Alpes-Maritimes, France, at age 75. He appeared in the films 1984, A Tale of Two Cities, Look Back in Anger, The Battle of the Sexes, The Great Escape, The Greatest Story Ever Told, THX 1138, and The Eagle Has Landed.

1996–Actor and dancer, Gene Kelly, dies from a stroke at his home in Beverly Hills, California, at age 83. He was known for his energetic and athletic dancing style, his good looks, and the likeable characters that he played on screen. He appeared in the films For Me and My Gal, DuBarry Was a Lady, Cover Girl, Anchors Aweigh, Ziegfeld Follies, The Pirate, The Three Musketeers, Words and Music, Take Me Out to the Ball Game, On the Town, Summer Stock, An American in Paris, Singin’ in the Rain, Brigadoon, It's Always Fair Weather, Invitation to the Dance, Les Girls, Marjorie Morningstar, Let’s Make Love, and What a Way to Go!

1996–Inventor, Ray McIntire, dies. He was a chemical engineer for Dow Chemical Company. He invented styrofoam. In March 2008, McIntire was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

1997–San Francisco Chronicle columnist, Herb Caen, dies of lung cancer in San Francisco, California, at age 80. Caen’s first column appeared July 5, 1938. In April 1996, Caen received a special Pulitzer Prize for "extraordinary and continuing contribution as a voice and conscience of his city."

1998–Theatrical producer, Roger Stevens, dies at age 87. He is the founding Chairman of both the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts and National Endowment for the Arts. His production credits include Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Bus Stop, West Side Story, A Man for All Seasons, Deathtrap, and Death of a Salesman.

1999–Country singer, Freddy Fender, is awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

2000–The first digital cinema projection in Europe is achieved by Philippe Binant in Paris, France, with the DLP CINEMA technology developed by Texas Instruments.

2002–Chuck Jones, animator, producer, and screenwriter, dies of congestive heart failure in Corona Del Mar, California, at age 89. He is best known for his work with Warner Bros. cartoons on the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies shorts. He wrote, produced, and/or directed many classic animated cartoon shorts starring Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Wile E. Coyote and the Road Runner, Pepé Le Pew, Porky Pig, and many other Warner characters.

2005–The Government of Canada introduces the Civil Marriage Act. This legislation would become law on July 20, 2005, legalizing same-sex marriage.

2005–German boxer, Max Schmeling, World Heavyweight Champion (1930-1932), dies in Wenzendorf, Germany, at age 99.

2006–New Orleans, Louisiana, is struck by two tornadoes, collapsing at least one previously damaged house and battering Louis Armstrong International Airport.

2007–Police officer, Filippo Raciti, is killed when a clash breaks out in the Sicily derby between Catania and Palermo in the Serie A, the top flight of Italian football. This event leads to major changes in stadium regulations in Italy.

2007–The worst flooding in 300 years begins in Indonesia.

2007–Billy Henderson, of The Spinners, dies from complications of diabetes in Daytona Beach, Florida, at age 67.

2008–Actor, Barry Morse, dies of undisclosed causes in London, England, at age 89. His body was donated to medical science. He is best known for the role of Lt. Philip Gerard in the TV drama The Fugitive. He appeared in the films Thunder Rock, It Started at Midnight, Mrs. Fitzherbert, Daughter of Darkness, Justine, and Running Scared.

2012–The ferry, MV Rabaul Queen, sinks off the coast of Papua New Guinea near the Finschhafen District. An estimated 300 people are missing.

2013–U.S. Navy SEAL, Chris Kyle, dies when he shot at the Rough Creek Ranch-Lodge-Resort shooting range in Erath County, Texas, at age 39. The suspected shooter is a 25-year-old U.S. Marine Corps veteran, Eddie Ray Routh, whom Kyle and friend, Chad Littlefield, had taken to the gun range in an effort to help him with post-traumatic stress disorder. Kyle served four tours in the Iraq War and was awarded several commendations for acts of heroism and meritorious service in combat: he received two Silver Star Medals, five Bronze Star Medals, one Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal, and two Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medals. Kyle was honorably discharged from the U.S. Navy in 2009, and wrote a bestselling autobiography, American Sniper, which was published in January 2012.

2014–Actor, Philip Seymour Hoffman, dies of a drug overdose in Manhattan, New York, at age 46. Hoffman, who had been sober for 23 years, entered a detox facility for heroin in the spring of 2013. He appeared in the films The Scent of a Woman, Twister, Boogie Nights, The Big Lebowski, Flawless, Almost Famous, Punch-Drunk Love, Capote, Doubt, and The Master.

2016–Comedian, Bob Elliott, dies of throat cancer in Cundy Harbor, Maine, at age 92. He was one-half of the comedy duo of Bob and Ray. On television, Elliott and Ray Goulding hosted The Bob and Ray Show from 1951 to 1953. He is best known for the character of Wally Ballou, a mild-mannered, but indefatigable radio reporter.

2017–Former HBOS manager, Lynden Scourfield, and other bankers and consultants are found guilty of corruption and abuse of power in stealing £245 million from the bank and small businesses in a loans scam, which was spent on personal luxuries. Scourfield is sentenced to 11 years in prison.

2018–President Donald Trump authorizes congress to release the Nunes memo on the House Intelligence Committee's website. This is a four-page memo written by Republican staff members for U.S. Representative Devin Nunes, that alleges that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) "may have relied on politically motivated or questionable sources" to obtain a Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) warrant in the early phases of the FBI's investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential elections. The memo contains evidence that the FISA warrant process was misused by FBI employees to sabotage the Trump presidency.

2018–Businessman and philanthropist, Jon Huntsman, Sr., dies in Salt Lake City, Utah, at age 80. He was the founder and executive chairman of Huntsman Corporation, a global manufacturer and marketer of specialty chemicals. Huntsman plastics are used in a wide variety of familiar objects, including McDonald's former clamshell burger containers. Huntsman Corporation also manufactures a wide variety of organic and inorganic chemicals that include polyurethanes, textiles, and pigments.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: James I of Aragon; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Alexander Selkirk; the Guggenheim Museum; the first electric streetlight; Howard Johnson Motor Lodges and Restaurants; Carl Gustaf Patrik de Laval; Elaine Stritch; polygraph machine, The Smothers Brothers; Barry Diller; Farrah Fawcett; the planets in our Solar System; Boris Karloff; the Midnight Special logo; Donald W. Douglas; Bert Parks with Miss America contestants; Gene Kelly; Max Schmeling; and Philip Seymour Hoffman.

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